3D printing research paper topics

51 3D Printing Topic Ideas to Write about & Essay Samples

Table of Contents

  1. 🏆 Best 3D Printing Topic Ideas & Essay Examples
  2. ⭐ Most Interesting 3D Printing Topics to Write about
  3. 💡 Good Essay Topics on 3D Printings
  4. 💯 Free 3D Printing Essay Topic Generator

🏆 Best 3D Printing Topic Ideas & Essay Examples

  1. Process Description: 3D Printing

    The material is the string-like strand of plastic coiled in the back of the printer. In turn, the movement of the print head is directed by the 3D file sent to the printer.

  2. 3D Printing Industry and Market

    One can understand the industry of 3D technologies in terms of the software technology, the hardware and the nature of the products.

  3. 3D Printing Industry in the UK

    Moreover, this research related the background of Makism 3D Corporation and the future of the 3D industry in the United Kingdom.

  4. 3D Printing as Third Industrial Revolution

    Another significant advantage of 3D printing is that it leads to increased efficiency as nearly all raw material can be utilized in the manufacturing process.

  5. 3D Bioprinting of Physical Organs

    This sort of technology can be compared to the current prostatic usage and it has proven to be extremely beneficial for people.

  6. Technology and Business: 3D Printer Impact

    This paper outlines the technology used for a Form 1 3D printer, as well as the impact this technology has had on business over the past ten years, the future of technology and business, the […]

  7. 3D Printer Elements and Features

    The objects that can be created with this printer should be at least 5x5x5 inches. These are some of the details that should be considered by the seller.

  8. 3D Printing: Pros and Cons

    The authors compare the quick advancement and loss in the price of 3D printers with the rise of the personal computers.

  9. 3D Heart Printing and Its Future

    Lee and Dai attributed the probability of the success of 3D technology to the materials used since they support the cellular components during and after bioprinting procedures.

  10. 3D Printing Technology in Medicine

    Notably, doctors need to learn how to use the printer in developing organs for patients in need of them. Employees need to be trained on how to use it at the workplace.

  11. 3D Printed Food and Utensils Safety

    The former is typically implemented in the production of simple foods and components, whereas the latter is used in combined culinary, with the implementation of both natural and printed ingredients.

⭐ Most Interesting 3D Printing Topics to Write about

  1. 3D Bioprinting of Brown Adipose Tissue
  2. Additive Manufacturing: 3D Printing and the Future of Organizational Design
  3. Charting the Environmental Dimensions of Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing
  4. 3D Printing and the Future of Nursing Education
  5. Current Applications and Future Perspectives of the Use of 3D Printing
  6. Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing
  7. 3D Printing and Its Effects on the World of Manufacturing
  8. Innovation Ecosystems Across Science, Technology, and Business: 3D Printing in China
  9. Financial and Funding Plan for a Biotech 3D Printing Company
  10. 3D Printing Food: Fiction or Reality?
  11. History, Future, and Applications of 3D Printing
  12. Limitations and Common Issues With 3D Printing
  13. Making Rare Materials Hands-On: 3D Printing a Possibility for Rare Materials
  14. Moral and Ethical Implications of 3D Printing Technology
  15. Nanoparticle Exposure During Processes Related to a Metal Object 3D Printing
  16. New Industrial Platforms and Radical Technology Foresight: 3D Printing in Europe
  17. 3D Printing Materials: Status, Opportunities, Market Forecasts
  18. Professional Skills for Information Technology for 3D Printing
  19. Reviewing Gun Control and 3D Printing in America
  20. Strategic Marketing Recommendation for the Launch of a 3D Printing Machine

💡 Good Essay Topics on 3D Printing

  1. Successful Business Models for 3D Printing Companies
  2. The Challenges and Boundaries of 3D Printing
  3. Overview of the Current Medical Uses of 3D Printing
  4. The Development and Challenge of 3D Printing
  5. The Different Areas and Applications of 3D Printing
  6. The Relationship Between Medical and Dental Industry and 3D Printing
  7. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: 3D Printing Techniques in Regenerative Medicine
  8. Tripolyphosphate-Crosslinked Chitosan & Gelatin Biocomposite Ink for 3D Printing of Uniaxial Scaffolds
  9. Understanding the Main Uses of 3D Printing
  10. The Potential Uses of 3D Printing Technology in the Modern World
  11. The Positive Impact of 3D Printing on Our Health and the Environment
  12. Why 3D Printing Service Bureaus Need to Be Automated
  13. The Effect of Three-Dimensional Printing on Prosthetic Limbs
  14. 3D Printing: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
  15. The Link Between 3D Printing and Bioprinting Revolutionizing Healthcare
  16. 3D Printing Usage to Boost Competitive Advantage of American Manufacturing
  17. Technology and Ecology: Inventions With 3D Printer That Will Surprise You
  18. Development of Direct Metal Laser Sintering Machine
  19. 3D Printing and Its Effects on the Economy
  20. Digital Printing and Its Impact on the 3D Printing Future Growth

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3d Printing Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines

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3D Printing

Words: 767

Length: 3 Pages

Type: Essay

3D Printing Petriot is a manufacturing company that seeks to gain a competitive advantage in the manufacturing business. This company competes on a strategy of having products made in…

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2 Pages



3D Printing to Boost Competitive Advantage of

Words: 618

Length: 2 Pages

Type: Essay

3D Printing to Boost Competitive Advantage of American Manufacturing It is crucial today to get small businesses in a position of stronger competitive advantage in order to truly stabilize…

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2 Pages

Business Plan

Education - Computers

3D Systems Products and Services

Words: 489

Length: 2 Pages

Type: Business Plan

3D Printers Products 3D Systems Product Lineup Consumer Products The product mix at 3D systems is composed of both personal and production three dimensional (3D) printers and the related…

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10 Pages

Research Paper

Information Technology

Analyzing Emerging and Disruptive Technologies for the Military

Words: 3556

Length: 10 Pages

Type: Research Paper

Disruptive Technologies for the Military Disruptive technologies are innovations that aid in creating new markets, eventually going on to disturb or even dismantle the current value networks and market,…

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2 Pages



Innovations in Transportation Logistics

Words: 688

Length: 2 Pages

Type: Essay

Transportation logistics field has experienced a number of significant changes in recent years due to innovations in technology, and there are a number of emerging concepts that have surfaced…

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6 Pages



Planning the Future at Galaxy Toys

Words: 2102

Length: 6 Pages

Type: Essay

To succeed in a highly dynamic and competitive environment, business organizations must effectively execute their planning activities. They must judiciously formulate their long- and short-term goals and objectives. This…

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18 Pages

Research Paper


History of CNC Computer Numerical

Words: 5340

Length: 18 Pages

Type: Research Paper

Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the…

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2 Pages

Research Proposal

Information Technology

Portfolio Research Graphic freelance designer

Words: 864

Length: 2 Pages

Type: Research Proposal

Graphic Freelance Designer Design professionalism standards and ethics (Discuss how the use of copyrighted materials may or may not be a factor with the portfolio you are preparing and…

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12 Pages



Zebra Imaging

Words: 3342

Length: 12 Pages

Type: Essay

Zebra Imaging: The Publically Traded Company In this paper the writer chooses a (public) company that has been a major player involved with the technology that was analyzed as…

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7 Pages

Research Paper


Totalitarian Architecture

Words: 2679

Length: 7 Pages

Type: Research Paper

Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of…

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10 Pages



Technology Presentation Information Technology Cannot

Words: 3110

Length: 10 Pages

Type: Thesis

We agree that people still purchase books. The reason is that today the author gets paid upfront and if people do not read the book, the publisher has to…

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2 Pages

Research Paper

Business - Advertising

Implant Sales One of the

Words: 653

Length: 2 Pages

Type: Research Paper

The marketing team will be charged with producing four-color informative brochures for distribution as well as a coordinated advertising campaign directed towards the targeted doctors and hospitals. This campaign…

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12 Pages


Art  (general)

Interactive Art Is an Artistic

Words: 3548

Length: 12 Pages

Type: Essay

Interactive art usually contains computers, sensors, and other devices that allow the art and the user to interact with each other. Video and computer games have brought a different…

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10 Pages

Term Paper

Business - Management

Technologies and Strategic Planning for

Words: 2831

Length: 10 Pages

Type: Term Paper

" (2008) Williams finally state that dynamic computing can enable innovation through enabling it departments to shift "from a 'light on' operation to a proactive, forward-looking approach. " (2008) SOCIAL…

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15 Pages

Term Paper


Dell Inc

Words: 6698

Length: 15 Pages

Type: Term Paper

Dell Inc. The head office of Dell is at Austin, Texas at the same place where the company was based. Dell Americas is also located in Texas, which is…

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14 Pages



Jaguar Motors

Words: 3773

Length: 14 Pages

Type: Essay

Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC Company Profile: Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC is a British multinational corporation that designs, develops, manufactures, promotes, and sells automobiles under the brand names…

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4 Pages



PESTEL Analysis PESTLE Analysis Thompson &amp Martin

Words: 1541

Length: 4 Pages

Type: Essay

PESTEL Analysis PESTLE analysis Thompson & Martin (2010) brings about the significance of external as well as internal analysis of a business empire as they point out the manner…

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3D printing as a new scientific and technical direction Text of a scientific article on the specialty "Other social sciences"

E. M. Proydakov


Keywords: additive technologies; SD printing; new technologies; science and technology policy; personnel training.

Keywords: additive technologies; 3D printing; new technologies; scientific and technical policy; training staff.

Annotation: The article discusses issues related to three-dimensional printing (SD-printing), its application and the important role that experts assign to this area in the modernization of industrial production. The necessity of paying more attention to this technology in the plans for the scientific and technological development of Russia and its support at the state level is indicated.

Abstract: In the article questions connected with 3D printing, its application and that important part which experts assign to this direction in modernization of industrial production are considered. It is indicated the need of bigger attention of the given technology for plans of scientific and technical development of Russia and its support at the state level.

Three-dimensional printing (hereinafter referred to as SD-printing) is a layer-by-layer creation of a physical object based on its three-dimensional computer model. A more detailed description of the process is as follows: “SD printing is a series of repetitive operations associated with the creation of three-dimensional models by applying a thin layer of consumables to the desktop of the installation, moving the desktop down to the height of the formed layer and removing waste from the surface of the desktop.

The printing cycles continuously follow each other: the next layer is applied to the previous layer of materials, the table is lowered again, and this is repeated until the finished model is on the elevator (as the desktop equipped with the SD printer is called)" [ 31. Since the material is “built up” layer by layer during the production of an object, this technology is also called additive.

We can say that the principle of operation of a 3D printer is quite simple: first, using some kind of design automation system (CAD), a file is prepared for printing, for example, using the widely used AutoCAD system from Autodesk. Once created, the file is sent to 3D printing, where it is already converted into the final product. In principle, printing takes place in the same way as on a conventional printer, but instead of paper with text on the output, you get a voluminous, solid model [10].

3D printing dates back to 1948, when the American C. Hull developed the technology of layer-by-layer growth of physical three-dimensional objects from a photopolymerizable composition (PPC). The technology is called "stereolithography" (STL). The author received a patent for his invention only in 1986. At the same time, he founded the 3D-system company and began developing the first industrial device for three-dimensional printing, which was presented to the public a year later, in 1987 [2]. During these years, several other 3D printing technologies were also patented, so several companies dispute the primacy in the production of the first commercial model of a three-dimensional printer. However, the boom around this technology began in the first decade of this century, and now it has entered the mass market. According to statistics for 2012 [11], there are already more than a thousand different 3D printers in the world, and their number is growing very rapidly [8].

The advantages of such devices are high speed, simplicity and relatively low cost. 3D printers allow you to completely get rid of manual labor and create a model of a future product in just a few hours, while eliminating the possibility of errors associated with the "human factor" [9].

It can be said that 3D printing technology is ripe for its mass application in various fields. At the same time, several unique qualities of this technology were revealed, which led to talk about a technological revolution in production.

There is no established classification of SD printers yet, but they can be divided by the technology used, by type (industrial, laboratory (institutional) and home), by the number of printheads, by color (single and multi-color), by the number of materials, from which the product is printed (one material or several different ones). In addition, they can be classified according to their purpose, for example, construction, food, etc.

3D printing technologies

There are several SD printing technologies that differ from each other in the type of prototyping material and how it is applied. Currently, the following technologies are most widely used:

1) stereolithography;

2) laser sintering of powder materials;

3) jet modeling technology;

4) layer-by-layer printing with melted polymer thread;

5) powder bonding technology;

6) lamination of sheet materials;

7) UV irradiation through a photomask;

8) color 3D printing.

Technologies can be devoted to a separate book, but here we will briefly explain only those that will be referenced in the future.

Stereolithography (SLA) is the most common 3D printing technology. It uses a photopolymer - a material that hardens when exposed to a laser beam. A printer using this technology contains a bath of liquid photopolymer, onto which a scanning system directs a laser beam. After the illuminated thin layer of the photopolymer hardens, the bath with it goes down by 0.025-0.3 mm. At the end of the process, a product is formed from a solid translucent material that is easily glued, processed and painted. This technology provides low cost of products.

Laser sintering of powder materials (SLS, selective laser sintering). This technology, which was invented in the 80s of the last century, uses metal, ceramics, and powdered plastic. The powder material is applied to the surface of the working table and baked by a laser beam into a solid layer corresponding to the cross section of the 3D model. After that, the working surface is lowered, and the process is repeated until the product is obtained.

It should be noted that in the People's Republic of China at the University of Science and Technology of Dalian Province, a laser SD printer was presented with the ability to print objects with a maximum size of 1.8 m x 1.8 m x 1.8 m [1]. In such industrial SD printers, metal is melted by a high-power laser, and a specific oxygen-free and nitrogen-free atmosphere is required for its proper operation. There are various ways to solve this problem.

Jet modeling technology. Supporting and modeling materials are used for printing. Wax is most often referred to as supporting materials, and a wide range of materials similar in their properties to structural thermoplastics are among modeling materials. The print head of the SD printer applies support and modeling materials to the work surface, after which they are photopolymerized and mechanically aligned. This technology makes it possible to obtain colored and transparent products with various mechanical properties - from soft, rubber-like, to hard [3].

Another popular technology is FDM printing. It consists in the fact that the print head heats up the threads made of ABC plastic, wax or polycarbonate to a semi-liquid state (the heating temperature is controlled) and with high accuracy delivers the material in thin layers to the working surface of the 3D printer. The layers are joined together and hardened to form the finished product. In this case, the layer thickness is in the range of 0.254-0.330 mm, and the accuracy (deviation from the specified dimensions) is 1.00 μm. This technology and its various varieties have many advantages. One of them is that, in fact, the process of growing a 3D part resembles conventional inkjet printing [3; ten].


Three-dimensional printing would not be worth the attention that it is now receiving, if, on the one hand, it has not already found application in various fields, and on the other hand, it would not promise to significantly affect the nature of production in in general. Let's look at its main areas of application.

Rapid prototyping, prototyping, for example in CAD and architectural prototyping. Rapid prototyping is used in the manufacture of architectural models of buildings,

structures, landscapes, models of city districts or factories. At the same time, the cost of such products is reduced by three to four times compared to traditional layouts. Such mock-ups can be used at exhibitions, in sales offices, when defending a project, etc. It should be noted that Russian government organizations often buy 3D printers for this very purpose. For printing 3D architectural models, it uses a cheap gypsum composite, which ensures a low cost of finished models.

Medicine. Here, the expectations from 3D printing technologies are the most. It is already being used for the manufacture of various patient-specific prostheses and implants, especially in dentistry, where these technologies are already widely used. The use of 3D printers makes it possible to create dummies and models of the patient's organs to prepare doctors for important operations [9]. Research is underway to print human organs. It is expected that in 5-7 years results will be obtained that can be used in wide medical practice.

A very indicative example of the use of 3D printing in the Chinese aircraft industry. In 2013, in the laboratory of the Northwest Polytechnic Institute of China (NCP), a five-meter wing center spar was printed for the promising Sotas S-919 passenger aircraft, which is expected to enter commercial service in 2016. Thanks to the use of 30- technologies managed to significantly reduce the mass of the spar. It weighs only 136 kg (a similar piece, obtained by forging, weighed 1607 kg). At the same time, material savings amounted to 91.5%. The tests carried out showed that 3D printed parts behave no worse than those obtained by traditional methods [5].

In advanced robotics, the dominance of 3D printing is also noticeable. The already famous robot "L1rIaVo8" is almost a third assembled from parts printed on such a printer [8]. Russian robot developers are also actively using this technology.

It is interesting to use 3D printers in construction. So far, experiments are being carried out that promise a revolution in this area, since all the internal communications of the house are printed simultaneously with the walls. It is possible to print the interior decoration of rooms. At the same time, the human factor disappears in the form of unskilled workers, etc.

There are many very unusual applications of 3D printing, such as the production of theater props, the production of disposable tools for the army to repair equipment in the field, the production of jewelry and souvenirs, etc.

It should be noted that the development of 3D printing technology by students, with the appropriate equipment of educational institutions of design or design specialties with 3D printers, will undoubtedly contribute not only to increasing the efficiency of the educational process, but also to the speedy introduction of these technologies into production processes and into the development of new products.

Emerging problems

Of course, the widespread introduction of 3D printing poses a number of issues that need to be addressed by society. First of all, this is the ability to print weapons. Experiments have shown that it is possible to print quite combat-ready copies of firearms at home. Another issue concerns copyright enforcement, since 3D printing allows reproduction of both works of art and product designs protected by patents. There are no doubts that there will be other problems that the international community will have to solve in connection with this technology, but this is inevitable with the introduction of any technology on a global scale. 9e.gi/ZVRpP/ - rapid prototyping and 3D, services ranging from 3D scanning, file creation, 3D visualization and 3D printing;

3) 3dmarket.org - a service that allows you to download and upload models, as well as select a print artist [7];

4) printshare.ru - print models from the presented catalog, as well as print your own models [4];

5) 3dprintus.ru - start-up, manufacturing of various products according to individual sketches [4];

6) can-touch.ru - there is a catalog with finished models. Large selection of materials;

7) nposystem.ru/ - service in Moscow;

8) http://www.3dprintspb.com/ - located in St. Petersburg;

9) http://www.teplocom-npf.ru/3d_print/ - located in St. Petersburg, in the Teplocom holding. Own laser sintering machine of the compact class EOS RORMIGA P100 with a working volume of 200 x 250 x 330 mm and a layer thickness of 0.1 mm. In a few hours, the equipment produces plastic products from polyamide or polystyrene directly from these CAD models;

10) http://3dprint. tomsk.ru/ - 3D printing service in Tomsk;

11) http://www.cybercom.ru/ - Cybercom Ltd. Offices in Moscow and Perm.

Foreign online 3D printing services:

1) www.thingiverse.com is probably the most famous one in existence. The service was created for the free exchange of models under the GNU general public license. The service has been operating since 2008. It belongs to MakerBot industries, USA;

2) www.shapeways.com - custom printing. The service has been operating since 2011. Production (printing) is located in the Netherlands and the USA. You can add your models, you can even create your own store. Due to the extensive fleet of 3D printers, they provide a large selection of materials, including ceramics and steel. Carry out delivery to Russia;

3) i.materialise.com/gallery - print models from the catalog. The company has been operating since 1990 and is located in Belgium. There is also the opportunity to evaluate your model and choose the material;

4) www. sculpteo.com/en/gallery/today/ - print 3D models and sell your own. There are quite complex and expensive models;

5) www.kraftwurx.com - a platform for creating and selling 3D models;

6) www.turbosquid.com - database of 3D models for game designers, architects, etc. Many of the models were not made for the purpose of 3D printing;

7) http://www.ponoko.com - they are engaged not only in 3D printing, but also in laser cutting [4].

Market Growth Forecasts

According to forecasts, in particular the World 3D printing to 2017 report (Freedonia Group agency), demand for 3D printing products and services will grow by more than 20% per year and by 2017. will reach $ 5 billion. At the same time, the design and construction of prototypes, as well as medicine and dentistry, will remain the main areas of application. An increase in demand for 3D printing services is also expected in the non-industrial sector [6]. Although the largest market for 3D printing services is currently considered the United States (42%), according to the forecasts of the "China 3D Printing Industry Alliance" by 2016, the size of the national market for additive manufacturing in China will reach $ 1. 65 billion, which is 10 times higher than this figure for 2012. If these predictions come true, China will soon surpass the United States and become the largest market for the 3D printing industry in the world [5].

In Russia, individual companies develop and implement 3D printing devices, but the pace of this work could be much faster if there was a pronounced state scientific and technical policy in this area.


Reasonable question: what is the role of science here? First of all, this is the development of new materials and the development of technologies for layer-by-layer printing itself. A lot of work is also needed in terms of efficient creation of three-dimensional models and analysis of their properties. These areas have been actively developed over the past 20 years, but much remains to be done. 9-chat as one of the 10 most disruptive technologies that can change industrial production in the foreseeable future. In order for the country to succeed in this direction, its purposeful support from the government is necessary. An example is Taiwan, where an alliance of 90 local companies was created with government support to create and manufacture 3D printers, 3D printing materials and related software. In 2013, this direction was recognized as one of the country's goals for the next eight years. Meanwhile, competition in the field of SD printing is also growing: research and development in this area is also being conducted in China, Japan, Europe and the USA [7].


1. The world's largest SD laser printer is developed in China. - Access mode: http://www.n3d.biz/3d-printery/v-ki1ae-razrabo1an-kmpnejshij-v-mire-lazemyj-Sd-printer.html

2. History of SD printing. - Access mode: http://www.orgprint.com/ru/wiki/istorija-


3. Overview of SD printing technologies. - Access mode: http://www.orgprint.com/ru/wiki/obzor-tehnologij-3D-pechati

4. List of SD printing services. - Access mode: http://habrahabr.ru/post/183750/

5. Shatov A. Industrial SD printing in China: Aircraft industry and the world's largest 3D printer. - Access mode: http://3dwiki.ru/promyshlennaya-3d-pechat-v-kitae-aviastroenie-i-samyj-bolshoj-v-mire-3d-printer/

6. Shatov A. Economic forecast for the future of the industry SD prints from Freedonia Group. - Mode of access: http://3dwiki.ru/ekonomicheskij-prognoz-na-budushhee-industrii-3d-pechati-ot-freedonia-group/

7. Khodakovsky K. Taiwan wants to dominate in SD printing. - Access mode: http://www.3dnews.ru/798316

8. SD printing: The third industrial-digital revolution. - Access mode: http://blogerator.ru/page/3d-pechat-industrialno-cifrovaja-revoljucija-3d-printer-makerbot-cena-opisanie-perspektivy-1

9. SD printers and 3D printing technology. - Access mode: http://vektorus.ru/auxpage_3d-printery-i-tehnologija-trehmernoj-pechati/#whatis

10. Modelin 3D. - Mode of access: http://www.modelin3d.ru/

11. 3D printing in 2012: Year in review. - Mode of access: http://www.3ders.org/articles/ 20121220-3d-printing-in-2012-year-in-review.html

Latest news review - the topic of a scientific article on nanotechnologies read the text of a research paper for free in the CyberLeninka electronic library

Informational messages.

UDC 004.356.2

Koktsinskaya E.M.

EB-printing technology: an overview of the latest news.

Scientific journal "Videoscience"

Annotation. 3D printing is of great interest and is considered revolutionary because it makes it possible to produce products of given dimensions with high precision at a low cost of manufacturing them. This article provides an overview of the latest news from the 3D printing industry.

Keywords: 3D, 3D printing, 3D printer, metal.

Abstract. 3D-printing is considered a revolutionary technology because it gives an opportunity to produce the product with specified dimensions and with high accuracy at a low cost of manufacture. This article is an overview of the latest news of the 3D printing industry.

Key words: 3D, 3D-printing, 3D-printer, metal..

All news provided by our partner, the World of Modern Materials portal (website: http://worl dofmaterial s.ru).

3D printing technology has developed rapidly in recent years and now covers a wide range of materials. At the same time, the cost of 3D printers themselves has decreased so much that it has made their use even at the household level possible. Materials such as metals, plastics, ceramics, food and even human tissue are beginning to be printed using this technology. 3D metal products are used in the aerospace industry, motor transport and energy, biomedicine, and robotics.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have recently discovered a new possibility in 3D printing: the ability to print optically transparent glass objects. Printed using the developed high-temperature technology, glass objects are durable and completely transparent to light. Objects can be pre-modeled in a design computer program, similar to other currently existing 3D printers [1].

A large number of works are devoted to the use of 3D printers to improve the properties of metals. Researchers at the University of Missouri Science and Technology are developing a way to use 3D printing technology to create new metals that are stronger and lighter than existing ones. These metallic materials are created by using a laser to melt metal powder, which is then deposited layer by layer to form a 3D printed object. As a result of this technology, structural amorphous metals are obtained [2].

Another team of researchers proposes a way to improve the quality of the structure and thus the properties of 3D printed metal parts. The level of control they have achieved on the manufactured product is absolutely unique. The researchers worked with the technology of electron beam melting, in which an electron beam sequentially welds together layers of metal powder, forming a 3D object. It was found that by controlling the heating parameters during the printing process, it is possible to monitor the curing process throughout the volume of the entire product. As a result, it turns out that the orientation of metal grains and the microstructure of the material can be very accurately controlled. Since the microstructure of a metal plays a decisive role in its physical and mechanical properties, by improving it, one can thereby improve the properties of a 3D product [3].

A team of multidisciplinary researchers based in Los Angeles is working on a unique solution using 3D printing. Their solution is aimed at combating greenhouse gases that are emitted during the production of concrete and electricity in power plants. The researchers plan to create a closed process that includes the capture of carbon on the pipes of power plants and its use in the creation of a new building material - carbon dioxide concrete CO2NCRETE (English "concrete" - concrete) - using 3D printing technologies [4].

3D printed tablets approved in the USA. And earlier, the production of medical devices - including prosthetics - using 3D printing technology was approved [5].

Dubai is going to build a fully functional building using 3D printing. Such an office will be printed layer by layer. The 3D printer that will be needed for this will be a 6 m high device. The office area will be about 186 m2. All internal details, furniture and structural components will be built using 3D printing technology based on a mixture of fiber reinforced plastic, special reinforced concrete and glass fiber reinforced gypsum [6].

But some things, until very recently, still remained unavailable for 3D printing, such as hair and fur. Printing such objects required several hours for the initial calculations and simulations, and only after that they could be printed on a printer. Instead of using standard computer design programs, a team at MIT has developed a new "Cilllia" program that allows users to determine the angle, thickness, density and height of thousands of hairs in just a few minutes. Using this program, the researchers modeled arrays of hair-like structures with a resolution of 50 microns (on the order of the thickness of a human hair). After that, they were printed on flat and curved surfaces using a conventional 3D printer, obtaining objects from coarse bristles to fine fur [7].


1. Printing transparent glass in 3-D // MIT News. 2015. URL: http://news.mit.edu/2015/3-d-printing-transparent-glass-0914 (Accessed 06/19/2016).

2.Researchers develop new metal materials through 3D printing // 3D printer and 3D printing news.

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