3D printed gun case
3D Printed Gun Arrests Tripled in Less Than Two Years - 3DPrint.com Investigates - 3DPrint.com
Gun violence is on the rise. Recent events, including mass shootings at an elementary school in Texas, a deadly assault at a medical facility in Oklahoma, and last year’s anti-Semitic rampage at a German synagogue, led to serious concerns surrounding ghost guns, particularly 3D printed ones. Taking these events into account, as well as a cascade of 3D printed gun-related arrests worldwide, several governments are taking measures to restrict privately made firearms without serial numbers.
Specifically, Europol organized a 3D printed firearms conference in the Hague last May (the first one in Europe), while the Biden administration called for an assault weapons ban and other measures to curb gun violence. Undoubtedly, 3D printed guns or gun parts that some people choose to create at home with their machines have increased concerns that homemade 3D guns could live up to their prematurely violent reputation.
How Many People Have Been Arrested for 3D Printed Guns?
In light of these events, 3DPrint.com began exploring recent 3D printed gun incidents and confirmed that over 90 people have been arrested in the last three years. The number of arrests is higher in countries like Canada, the U.S., and Australia, representing 18%, 44%, and 17% out of total arrests, respectively. As we dive more deeply into the emerging trends, it is noticeable that North America leads the arrest statistics, followed by Europe, and then Oceania.
However, it’s important to note that not every country reports all of its arrests, so there will be more than we accounted for. For example, in the U.S., arrest records are public, yet each state can determine whether they want them to be readily accessible. Even in states that consider arrest records to be public information, there may be exceptions, and some will not be released publicly. In countries like Australia, if a case attracts media attention, there is little a defendant can do to avoid the information getting published.
Because ghost guns and 3D printed guns in particular are almost impossible to trace, the job of law enforcement agencies to prosecute them is made even tougher. In the last decade, police forces found out several people were making guns at home with 3D printers as part of organized crime raids or investigations into other criminal activities. For instance, in May 2021, two men and one woman were arrested in the town of Keighley in the United Kingdom as part of an investigation into right-wing terrorism. All three were charged with possessing components of 3D printed weapons, and two were members of an online group where terror manuals and weapons guides were shared among neo-Nazis. As a result, they were all found guilty of terror offenses a year later and convicted.3D printed gun parts. Image courtesy of Saskatoon Police Service.
The Era of Homemade Firearms
Ever since 2013, when gun-rights activist Cody Wilson built the Liberator, the world’s first-ever 3D printed gun, he launched what would be known as an era of homemade firearms. Using a Stratasys Dimension series 3D printer purchased on eBay, the then law student spend very little money to create the gun, using metal only for the firing pin, which strikes the primer of a cartridge to ignite the charge and fire the weapon.
From the public data available, we have noted that the number of arrests has gone up significantly since 2019. Only 15% of the total arrests for 3D printing guns occurred between 2013 and 2019. In October 2013, a man from Manchester, U.K., was arrested after police suspected he was making 3D printed components for what they called at the time “next-generation weapons.” Thought to be the first-ever seizure of 3D printed gun parts in the U.K. (and most likely the world), these, along with a 3D printer, were discovered during a gang raid as part of Challenger, one of the largest multi-agency operations to target organized crime in that city.
Then, in 2014, a man was arrested in Japan for possessing 3D printed handguns, after five devices were found during a police raid on his house. The 27-year-old college employee from Kawasaki was charged for illegally possessing firearms made with 3D printers, marking the first such case in Japan, a country that takes pride in its low crime rate and has strictly regulated gun ownership.
Several cases followed, including at least five in Australia, eight in the U.S., as well as a few in Europe, including in Sweden and the U.K. But that was before 2020, when the number of arrestees began to increase from just a handful to more than a dozen. The number of arrests then doubled and tripled in 2021 and 2022 respectively, compared to the previous year.
2022: The Year of 3D Printed Gun Arrests
According to the data, 42% of all 3D printed gun-related arrests were in 2022, that’s roughly 44 people arrested. We also estimate that roughly 31% of all arrests occurred in 2021, and 12% in 2020. This jump in the number of 3D printed gun crimes detected through police activity has alerted law enforcement worldwide. During the International Conference on 3D Printed Firearms, organized by Europol and the Dutch National Police in the framework of EMPACT Firearms and hosted at the University of Leiden, some 120 participants from 20 countries addressed the latest challenges that security forces face to counter this threat.
The team leader of Europol’s Analysis Project Weapons and Explosives, Martin van der Meij, said at the conference that there is a growing number of 3D printed weapons being seized in investigations across Europe and that the threat is “very much on Europol’s radar.”3D printed guns showcased at the International Conference on 3D Printed Firearms. Image courtesy of Europol.
Across the Atlantic, President Joe Biden is trying to persuade a reluctant Congress to tighten gun laws in the aftermath of horrific mass shootings in recent weeks in the U.S. According to the Gun Violence Archive, there have already been more than 240 mass shootings this year in the US in which four or more people were shot or killed. That’s not to say that 3D printed guns were involved in all of these events, but they have been found in a few of attackers’ homes in 2022 and earlier.
The U.S. hasn’t passed a major federal gun control measure since the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in Connecticut that left 26 dead. Finding a middle ground to compromise over gun safety legislation will not be easy. In late May, President Joe Biden talked about banning most handguns. Then, on June 2, the House Judiciary Committee approved a wide-ranging package of gun control legislation called the “Protecting Our Kids Act.” The eight-bill package includes calls to raise the age limits on semi-automatic rifle purchases from 18 to 21 years old; creating a grant program to buy back large-capacity magazines; establishing voluntary, safe practices for firearms storage; and building on executive measures to ban bump stock devices and so-called ghost guns made with 3D printing.
Earlier this year, the Biden Administration said it would introduce ghost gun reforms to the 3D printing industry. Known as “Final Rule 2021R-05F,” this rule redefines firearm parts and bans the business of manufacturing the most accessible ghost guns. In addition, the rule will affect upper receivers, suppressors, and CAD files for 3D printing. Even simple marketing materials—like instructions for how to assemble an 80 lower jig or how to mill an 80 percent lower receiver—may be rendered illegal at the sole discretion of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) on a case by case basis.
Whether partly or entirely manufactured with a 3D printer, these types of “ghost guns” are becoming a headache for many law enforcement agencies worldwide. Especially since many of the people arrested have been directly related to white supremacist and neo-Nazi movements. However, it will be difficult to curtail 3D printed guns, mainly since any efforts to regulate or even ban 3D guns must satisfy constitutional scrutiny under both the First and Second Amendments. So, even though the debate over 3D printed guns is far from over, the striking number of arrests in recent years is drawing attention from lawmakers and security forces, but where that trail will lead, we still don’t know.
Correction August 11, 2022: A previous version of this article began with the sentence “3D printed gun violence is on the rise. ” The phrase “3D printed” has been removed so as not to conflate the violence committed by some individuals who have owned ghost guns, including 3D printed firearms, with 3D printing itself.
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3D-printed firearms and liability for police shootings
Petitions of the week
This week we highlight cert petitions that ask the Supreme Court to consider, among other things, when a state attorney general can be pulled into court in another state and when a police officer is immune from civil liability for fatally shooting a passenger in a fleeing car.
Grewal v. Defense Distributed is a dispute between the attorney general of New Jersey and a Texas company that develops digital files used to manufacture 3D-printed guns. In 2018, the attorney general, Gurbir Grewal, sent a cease-and-desist letter to Defense Distributed, warning that distributing such files to New Jersey residents over the internet would violate New Jersey law. In response, the company sued Grewal in federal court in Texas. It sought an injunction barring Grewal from taking any enforcement action against the company, which it argued would violate the First and Second Amendments.
The Texas district court dismissed the lawsuit after finding that it had no personal jurisdiction over Grewal. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit reversed and ruled that the case could proceed. Grewal argues in his cert petition that the 5th Circuit’s decision is at odds with the Supreme Court’s case law on personal jurisdiction. He also claims that the 5th Circuit created a circuit split on the question whether state officials subject themselves to jurisdiction in other states merely by sending cease-and-desist letters across state lines.
City of Hayward v. Stoddard-Nunez arises from a police officer’s fatal shooting of a passenger in a fleeing car. In 2013, an officer in Hayward, California, attempted to stop a car on suspicion of drunk driving. After initially stopping in a parking lot, the driver refused to exit the car. Instead, he drove past the officer’s patrol car and fled the scene. The officer, who testified that the car swerved toward him as it fled, fired nine shots into the car, killing a passenger. The passenger’s next-of-kin sued the officer and the city under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, arguing that the officer violated the passenger’s Fourth Amendment right to be free from unreasonable seizures.
The district court dismissed the lawsuit, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit reinstated it, concluding that a reasonable jury could find that the officer fired the fatal shot after the car had already passed him and posed little threat to the officer or the public. The officer and the city ask the Supreme Court to take up the case to resolve two issues: (1) the proper of level of generality that courts should use to assess whether an officer violated “clearly established law” for the purpose of deciding whether that officer is entitled to qualified immunity, and (2) whether a shooting of a passenger under these circumstances counts as a seizure under the Fourth Amendment.
These and other petitions of the week are below:
Brown v. Polk County, Wisconsin
Issue: Whether the Fourth Amendment permits jail officials to conduct a physical, penetrative search of the vagina and/or anus of a pretrial detainee without a warrant, probable cause or exigent circumstances, including in cases of persons detained for minor nonviolent non-drug offenses like shoplifting.
Grewal v. Defense Distributed
Issue: Whether a nonresident state official subjects itself to personal jurisdiction in another forum state when it sends a single cease-and-desist letter to a single resident in that state.
Smith v. Tyson
Issues: (1) Whether the review required under Section 2254 of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 and Cullen v. Pinholster is violated by reliance upon a “some ambiguity” standard utilized by the U. S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit to find a due process violation without affording the required benefit of the doubt to both defense counsel and the trial court; (2) whether the 3rd Circuit’s decision granting habeas relief on the basis of alleged erroneous jury instructions in a state accomplice murder trial erred by failing to apply the Supreme Court’s own precedent in Waddington v. Sarasaud; and (3) whether, by ignoring whole sections of the trial court’s charge to the jury with respect to accomplice liability and failing to view it in the context of the trial record, the 3rd Circuit erred in concluding that there exists a substantial and not just a conceivable likelihood of a different result.
England v. Hart
Issue: Whether the “objective inquiry” required by Davis v. United States for an assertion of the right to counsel may be based on subjective factors.
Dominguez v. United States
Issue: Whether attempted robbery under the Hobbs Act qualifies as a “crime of violence,” meaning that it “has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another.”
City of Hayward, California v. Stoddard-Nunez
Issues: (1) Whether an accelerating fleeing driver’s sudden turn deprives a threatened shooting officer of qualified immunity; and (2) whether an unintended victim-passenger of a fleeing vehicle is “seized” for purposes of the Fourth Amendment.
Shinn v. Ramirez
Issue: Whether application of the equitable rule the Supreme Court announced in Martinez v. Ryan renders the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, which precludes a federal court from considering evidence outside the state-court record when reviewing the merits of a claim for habeas relief if a prisoner or his attorney has failed to diligently develop the claim’s factual basis in state court, inapplicable to a federal court’s merits review of a claim for habeas relief.
Rranxburgaj v. Mayorkas
Issue: Whether legal determinations antecedent to agencies’ discretionary decisions to commence proceedings, adjudicate cases or execute removal orders “arise from” these decisions for purposes of 8 U.S.C. § 1252(g), which provides that “no court shall have jurisdiction to hear any cause or claim by or on behalf of any alien arising from the decision or action by the U.S. attorney general to commence proceedings, adjudicate cases, or execute removal orders against any alien under this chapter.”
Louisiana Real Estate Appraisers Board v. Federal Trade Commission
[Disclosure: Goldstein & Russell, P.C., whose attorneys contribute to SCOTUSblog in various capacities, is among counsel to the petitioner in this case. This listing occurs without regard to the likelihood that certiorari will be granted.]
Issue: Whether and under what conditions orders denying state-action immunity to public entities are immediately appealable under the collateral-order doctrine.
Posted in Cases in the Pipeline
Cases: Shinn v. Ramirez, Rranxburgaj v. Mayorkas, Louisiana Real Estate Appraisers Board v. Federal Trade Commission, Brown v. Polk County, Wisconsin, Grewal v. Defense Distributed, Smith v. Tyson, England v. Hart, Dominguez v. United States, City of Hayward, California v. Stoddard-Nunez
Recommended Citation: James Romoser, 3D-printed firearms and liability for police shootings, SCOTUSblog (Feb. 12, 2021, 5:32 PM), https://www.scotusblog.com/2021/02/3d-printed-firearms-and-liability-for-police-shootings/
Based on the structure of the material of a printed object, you can determine the model of a 3D printer and a specific device / Sudo Null IT News at the crime scene
3D printing has long been a part of our everyday life. Someone has a 3D printer at home, someone has it at work, and someone orders the necessary parts over the Internet. The convenience of such a system is beyond doubt - there are, of course, difficulties, but there are also many advantages.
Even plastic firearms are printed on 3D printers - the first such firearm was the Liberator pistol. Now 3D printing enthusiasts are even creating rifles that are not at all disposable, which was the Liberator. Officials from different countries are fighting with lovers of "printed" weapons, since there is a completely non-zero probability that a firearm that cannot be traced will be used for good purposes. So far, free guns are winning the fight, but the situation may well change, and soon.
The fact is that by the features of printing a part, the characteristics of the structure, you can determine which particular 3D printer the part was made on. This is about the same as determining the typewriter on which the ransomware message was produced, or identifying a conventional inkjet printer by various characteristics of the printed text, including marks specially added by the manufacturer.
As for firearms, the first person to create a real system capable of sending a bullet flying was Cody Wilson (now, by the way, a case is being conducted against him, and it is not based at all on the accusation of creating a weapon, but on materials about his relationship with a minor).
Cody Wilson became the leader of the free guns movement, now this movement has many followers who will work and work without Cody.
So, with regard to tracking weapons printed on a 3D printer, the technique that allows you to do this was developed by engineers led by Wenyao Xu from New York University at Buffalo. The technology, according to the authors of the project, allows you to determine the place of printing weapons even if the printer is at home.
Distinctive features of the structure of the same part printed on different printers
The principle is quite simple - the fact is that almost no 3D printer prints perfectly smooth parts (with the exception of some very expensive models). And the irregularities, roughness remaining on the surface of the printed object are individual for each device. The reason for the appearance of irregularities in imperfectly fitted gears, the features of the operation of the entire mechanism as a whole, marks on the extruder, etc.
The authors of the project examined a large number of parts printed on a variety of printers and determined that the structure of the plastic layers really differs from part to part and from printer to printer. In almost all cases, you can find some identifier for a particular printer.
Based on the obtained data, the scientists developed an algorithm for studying the surface structure of the part. The first stage is to obtain photographs of the surface of the printed element. You can do this even with a not very high-quality camera (within reason, of course). Then the images are fed to a special program that analyzes the location of the plastic layers. The program reveals about 20 different characteristics of the distribution of layers and "blots".
After the analysis results are ready, all the data is passed to the classifier, which, in turn, determines which printer model and which particular device printed the part. If it was not possible to determine a specific device, the program reports this.
The researchers did not have the opportunity to examine thousands of 3D printers, they used 14 printers from 6 different manufacturers, the most popular devices. Basically, these systems work with plastic types such as photopolymer, ABS and PLA plastic. The printers included in the database use the two most popular printing methods, FDM and SLA.
In order to teach the algorithm to correctly identify the printer model and specific device, it was trained by loading about 2100 images into the database. After that, the system was tested by uploading test photos. As it turned out, after not too long training, the accuracy of the system was 92%.
The scientists presented the results of their work in the article.
20 Amazing 3D Printed Things
If you can print in 2D, can you print in 3D? Well, the technology is already here. You can print 3D objects based on a working template, and they are not only meant to be looked at. They actually work! Manufacturers can provide you with a template from which you can print a broken machine part, say a screw, rather than placing an order and then waiting for a replacement.
Alternatively, you can make a 1:3 scale replica of an expensive car, like a 1960 Aston Martin DB5, for example, and then, for example, shoot it down or burn it down for fun, just like the makers of the James Bond movie Skyfall did.
3D printing is made possible by fusing layer by layer of durable plastics and metals based on a pattern designed with ARPA (Computer Aided Design). Each layer, about 0.1 mm thick, consists of liquid, powder or whole sheets of material.
With this technology and a 3D printer, you can design, construct, or 3D print almost everything around you, as long as you have the templates. Just to give you an idea of what you can do with 3D printing, check out these 20 amazing printed masterpieces.
In the past, printed firearms broke easily after a few shots. Today, however, the non-profit corporation Defense Distributed is offering users to download the necessary files to print your own firearms if you have a 3D printer at home.
Here is one of the videos of their semi-automatic and semi-automatic weapons:
Scott Summi has printed the world's first 3D acoustic guitar, which means that now everyone others know it's possible.
3D printed guitars can be made from plastic complete with a metal sound hole cap and heel. In addition to creating working musical instruments, guitarists can also make exact 3D copies of the guitars of their favorite musicians or idols.
Homemade Camera Lens
A camera lens is not easy to make, but with 3D printing you can make your own lens and even get some creative and unique results with it.
The creator of this lens (http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:37147) used acrylic to replace glass in the lens, as well as some other parts and mechanisms to bring them together. And, most importantly, the lens works! Check out some pictures taken with this lens: http://suzuki11.tumblr.com/
This beautiful Japanese flute is 3D printed stainless steel. It comes in a variety of finishes such as gold plated matte or glossy and antique bronze matte (pictured below). The flute is 9.4 inches long and if you look closely you can see a small dragon on it.
You can buy this beautiful musical instrument for $239.95. Just imagine what this technology means for fantasy lovers.
If you are going to weave a small amount of fabric, you can create this simple loom with a 3D printer and some plastic. All parts were fastened with bolts. To model this loom, the author used a 3D modeling program called openSCAD.
The lessons of history would be much more interesting if you could see real goods that were sold during a certain period of time.
Machine model: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:11374
3D kids drawing figures maybe a sculpture? Well, now you can do it for 99 euros. Thanks to 3D printing, your child's colorful drawing can be turned into a work of art.
Approximately 4" long object can be used to decorate your desktop or home, or as a trophy for your child's artistic talents. http://www.crayoncreatures.com/
3 D- embryo
“3D scanning” of your unborn child takes on a whole new meaning. Instead of a picture of your ultrasound, a Japanese company is offering you the so-called Angel Shape, a 3D print of your embryo for $1,275. A 3D model is created based on the processed image data using BioTexture.
When it comes to technology, science has to be involved. Thanks to 3D printing, doctors will have a cheaper alternative to study human anatomy, as well as the ability to introduce more realistic models into surgical practice without the use of cadavers.
The printing of these medical models is so accurate that surgeons can use them to plan operations before operating on the real patient.
This sneaker has a lot of intricate details and 1 meter of wires to light it up, so it's not a shoe you could wear. It was 3D printed and used for a commercial advertisement for the Onitsuka Tiger. The link says you can buy it for 5879.83 euros and use as a modern sculpture in your home.
In this video you can see how this amazing shoe was made:
Case for your iPhone with card slot
This Janne Kyttanen creation might look like a good iPhone 5 case design, but it's more functional than a normal case. It can also store any two cards.
It is called the "Mondriaan" case, after the artist Piet Mondriaan, who liked the design of horizontal and vertical lines. This case costs 34.9$9 and available in 3 colors.
If you bring your USB cables or other wires with you and want them to be neatly folded and tangle-free, you can buy this wire holder to help you get rid of from the hassle and save your time.
It can be printed in a wide range of colors and costs between 10 and 20 euros depending on the color and size you choose.
Infinite Sisu iPad Stand
This stand is inspired by the Finnish concept of determination; The little muscular "man" holding your iPad is pretty hard to ignore. This is definitely a work of art that you can purchase for $161.
You may find it expensive compared to the standard and more well-known stands for smartphones and tablets, but this is the price you have to pay for any work of art.
Bugdroid custom designed
Fans of the Android operating system and especially its splash logo figurines will also love these 3D crafted figurines, where the most amazing thing is that you can customize and choose different themes that suit you best.
There are 25 standard themes to choose from, priced at $21.99; If you don't find one that's right for you, then there's the option to customize your own Bugdroid for a starting price of $29$.99
Your attention is the so-called palm lamp or lamp (Palm Lamp) from the same designer who made the iPhone case in the 10th item of our list. Janne Kyttanen has designed this rather eye-catching piece of art that comes in a wide variety of sizes. This lamp can be used as part of the decor, as a floor or table lamp or even a chandelier.
This is a 3D printed watch that consists of two parts: part "A" and part "B". The first part is the purple dial itself, the second is the design part behind the dial.
With the instructions, you can quickly and easily assemble and set them up. Two versions of the watch are available for order: the kaleidoscope watch in white design will cost a total of $51, while the black one will cost $61.
Revolution in 3 D anatomical sculpture prints
This piece of art is the creation of one of the most famous 3D designers Joshua Harker. This sculpture is printed in polyamide, obtained by laser sintering nylon and glass. Follow the link to see more photos of this intricate creation: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/joshharker/anatomica-di-revolutis
ceramics. The printing process takes almost a full day, and the One Cup a Day project aims to design and create 30 unique cups in 30 days. You can purchase their creations from this site where prices range from $36 to $77: https://www. cunicode.com/works/one-coffee-cup-a-day/
This pair of 3D high heels called "Morphogenesis" was designed by Pauline Van Dongen and made from laser sintered nylon. She collaborated with Freedom Of Creation on the design, which in turn won the Most Creative Collection award at Mittelmoda 2010.
These shoes come in a variety of colors and truly define the future of 3D printed accessories. .
Fabrics printed with 3 D
Designer Jiri Evenhuise together Janne Kyttanen has worked hard to make needle and thread a thing of the past. In their work, they use software that collects data on the physique of a particular person and instantly creates clothes that will fit exactly on the figure.
This type of production is recyclable, less labour-intensive, reduces production time and is ultimately a more sustainable way to produce clothing.