3D printer fire hazard
Are 3D Printers at Risk of Catching on Fire? – Printing It 3D
3D printers are a revolutionary piece of electronic machinery. Still, like all electronics that produce heat, they can malfunction, which might pose a fire hazard.
3D Printers are at risk of catching fire because they use power to produce heat. If your printer overheats or malfunctions, it could quickly start a fire, and if you aren’t prepared to contain the fire, you could ruin your printer or even burn your home.
So, let’s talk about 3D printers and fires. I’ll teach you about why a 3D printer might go up in flames, and I’ll discuss the ways that you can fireproof your 3D printer, keeping you and your home safe from fires.
What Causes 3D Printers To Catch on Fire?
When working with any electrical machinery that produces heat, especially a 3D printer, you should prepare for fire risks. Fire risks are common in some models of 3D printers, especially those sold for lower prices.
A 3D printer might catch on fire for one of many reasons. Some of the most common causes of fires for 3D printers are electrical overheating, a thermistor that has come loose, a thermal runaway malfunction, an extruder jam, or flammable casings.
Let’s get into the details and talk about how these conditions could produce a fire in your 3D printer.
Most 3D printer-related fires are electrical fires that occur when the wires inside your printer get so hot that they melt the insulation.
When this happens, the wires may spread heat to your 3D printer, melting the frame, filament, or structural components and eventually starting a fire from within the machine.
Most 3D printer fires caused by electrical issues are a result of a poorly made printer. Printers with loose solder, badly insulated wires, and mis-sized wires have a high chance of going up in flames eventually.
This means that ensuring that your 3D printer is constructed correctly or purchasing a printer from a reputable brand is the best way to prevent fires.
The Thermistor Comes Loose
As your 3D printer prints, it heats the plastic filament to turn it into a liquid. Then it uses the extruder to squeeze the filament out, giving you a layer of printed material.
Some 3D printers also use a heated print bed to prevent warping and control the cool-down rate of your filament.
So, your printer will continually heat up when you print anything. Your printer has a thermistor’s temperature-reading mechanism to regulate the temperature and keep it from burning the filament.
Thermistors use a sensor to read the temperature, and they communicate with the controls of your printer to adjust how much heat it produces.
However, they are also secured to the printer with screws, and they use wires to connect to the control boards of your printer, and these connections are notorious for coming loose.
When the connections come loose, your printer won’t measure the heat level accurately, which could result in overheating or a fire if you don’t manually turn the printer off and repair it.
The Thermal Runaway Malfunctions
Filament and many of the acrylic and plastic materials used to make 3D printers are highly flammable. If the heat is allowed to increase unchecked, your printer’s casing, filament, or components could melt and eventually go up in flames.
That’s why most 3D printers include a thermal runaway that shuts down the printer if it gets too hot. The thermal runaway is a safety feature that protects your 3D printer from going up in flames if the thermistor malfunctions or comes loose.
However, if the thermal runaway is poorly made or cannot detect your thermistor’s heat level, you have a sure-fire recipe for flames.
The warm extruder will move as your model prints, distributing small layers of melted filament onto the print bed. The extruder uses heat to make your model, but it could create a severe fire hazard when it has no time to cool off between layers.
However, if your print fails and blocks the extruder from moving correctly, it can block the extruder and keep it trapped in one spot on your model.
When this happens, the extruder might heat the model so much that it starts to melt, then catches on fire.
High-quality thermal printers can be expensive, but they are usually worth it since printers made with cheap, flammable materials often catch on fire during printing.
Materials such as foam, acrylic, plastic, and wood are acceptable for the structural components of your 3D printer when it comes to keeping all the parts held together. That said, these flammable materials significantly increase the risk that your printer will turn into a molten pile of melted materials with use.
How Do You Fireproof a 3D Printer?
So, how do you avoid fires while 3D printing? I’m glad you asked.
To fireproof a 3D printer, you should:
- Buy A Printer From A Reputable Brand.
- Install A Smoke Detector Above Your Printer.
- Keep Flammable Materials Far From Your Printer.
- Use A Fire-Retardant Filament.
- Maintain Your Printer Properly.
So, let’s talk about how you can use these methods to prevent and contain printer fires.
Buy a Printer From a Reputable Brand
When it comes to 3D printers, a bargain isn’t always a good thing. You generally get what you pay for, which means that unbelievably cheap 3D printers are made with more inexpensive, likely flammable materials and low-quality wiring.
So, to prevent yourself from purchasing an expensive piece of kindling, check out the reviews and ratings for any printer you are interested in. Try to find out what materials your printer is made from, and always verify that it is made with flame-retardant materials like metal, inflammable wire casings, and glass.
Install a Smoke Detector Above Your Printer
Smoke detectors can’t entirely prevent your printer from going up in flames, but they can help you contain the fire if it occurs.
Install a smoke detector within feet of your 3D printer and keep up with its battery life cycles for the best results. That way, you’ll be able to get to the fire before it gets to you!
Keep Flammable Materials Far From Your Printer
Keeping materials like foam, wood, plastic, sawdust, and paper far from your printer can ensure that any fires that occur go out on their own, which can protect you from a raging house fire.
It’s best to keep your printer on a piece of sheet metal or a metal shelf with nothing else on it to prevent any fires from spreading. If there are multiple shelves, put your 3d printer in a spot so that there is sheet metal above it, which can help smother and contain fires.
Use a Fire-Retardant Filament
Fire retardant filaments are fantastic, especially for prints that might fail and block the extruder during the print process. These filaments work just as well as other flammable filaments, but they won’t catch on fire, preventing flames from sparking or spreading.
I always use this Polymaker Polycarbonate Flame Retardant Filament (available on Amazon.com), which comes in black and white, and always gives me durable prints.
Maintain Your Printer Properly
As I mentioned above, faulty or loose thermistors are a leading cause of 3D printer fires. So, to keep your thermistor in good condition, tighten the screws regularly and check for any loose wiring.
In addition, you may want to check the solder on the wires in your printer every once and a while to ensure that the thermal runaways and electrical wiring are secure and not burnt.
3D printers can start fires, so it’s essential to know the causes and reduce the risk of fire hazards when using a 3D printer. Most fires are caused by electrical problems like overheated wires or melted wire casings.
Additionally, fires can also happen if your thermistor is loose, if the thermal runaway malfunctions, if the extruder jams, or if your printer has a flammable casing. To prevent these issues, you should always maintain your printer.
3D Printers Can Burn Down Your House! Fireproofing Guide
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Besides many test devices, Martin now has his fourth own 3D printer running and prints as a hobby for friends, family and himself. He is happy to share his experience with each new article.
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Basically, there is a danger that your 3D printer could catch fire. This starts at the machine itself, spreads throughout the room, and eventually burns down the entire house.
It is not particularly complicated to take preventive measures and to prevent such a catastrophe. At the very least, damage can be limited in the event that the 3D printer does catch fire.
There is always some risk of fire when using a 3D printer. The question is whether this can be controlled. If you’re in the same room as the 3D printer, turning off the power is usually enough. But if you’re away from home when a fire breaks out, what can you do?
The following text not only provides an overview of the various risks of a 3D printer and its environment that can result in a fire but also provides important tips for remote monitoring and control. It also describes effective prevention measures to ensure that you can sleep without worry at night while your 3D printer is still working on a new 3D model.
Although the 3D printer tends to be one of the less dangerous manufacturing equipment, it does present some risks. Users who have had experience with burning 3D printers are unanimously advised never to leave them unattended. This is especially true for models that have a heated chamber.
Table of Contents:
- 1 Negative Example: The Anet A8
- 2 Why is there an Increased Risk of Fire in 3D Printing?
- 3 How Does the 3D Printer Cause a Fire?
- 4 General Information on Fire Protection
- 5 Preventive Firefighting Begins at the 3D Printer Itself
- 5. 1 The Frame
- 5.2 Filament
- 5.3 Hot End Temperature Monitoring
- 5.4 Housing
- 5.5 Power Supplies
- 5.6 Connections
- 5.7 Bolted Connections
- 5.8 Cable Connectors
- 5.9 MOSFET
- 5.10 Fuses
- 5.11 Excessive Cable Elongation
- 5.12 Proper Functioning of the Firmware
- 6 Other Preventive Fire Measures
- 6.1 Keep your device clean
- 6.2 Ensure a tidy work area
- 6.3 The execution of remote printing and its monitoring
- 6.4 Cameras
- 6.5 Alarm
- 6.6 Plug
- 7 OctoPrint – The Ultimate Solution for Remote Control of your 3D Printer
- 8 Related Questions
- 8.1 Is there an alternative to the MOSFETS?
- 8.2 What components are required to install an SSR?
- 8.3 What else is needed so that an SSR already installed can contribute to fire protection?
Negative Example: The Anet A8
The Anet A8 3D printer was long considered a very popular model, as it was available for under 100 dollars. This made it a great Christmas gift for children to introduce them to 3D printing through play. It could not only be found on various Chinese shopping portals but could also be bought at Amazon*.
Over time, however, it became known that the Anet A8 3D printer is a time bomb, as it regularly goes up in flames. In many places on the web, you can find shocking photos of burnt Anet A8 3D printers and the devastation they caused.Burned Down Anet A8. (source: reddit)
Often the user was able to extinguish the fire in time, but all that was left of the printer, the filament and the surrounding area was a black heap of plastic. In some cases, even half the house fell victim to the flames. The most common cause of fire in the Anet A8 is the thermistor, which actually has the task of measuring the current temperature of the print head and thus provides the values for controlling the print temperature.
It turned out, however, that this temperature sensor regularly loosens and thus gives significantly lower values than those actually present in the heating element in the print head.
In addition, the Marlin firmware, which is outdated or modified by the Chinese manufacturer, attempts to readjust the temperature drop. This results in a red-hot print head, which not only melts the filament that is still being fed and heats it up to its flashpoint but also reaches the plastic parts in the surrounding area.
Melting cables and high currents cause short circuits, among other things. Furthermore, the undersized terminals on the printer board are not designed for the prevailing operating currents. Therefore many users of the Anet A8 reported that the boards are scorched and have to be replaced afterward.
Of course, the easiest way to avoid such a risk with the Anet A8 3D printer is not to buy it in the first place, but to opt for a higher quality model.
The Anet A8 can at least not be put into operation without having made some modifications in advance. For this, you need the appropriate technical knowledge, professional tools and craftsmanship. You should also be able to update the firmware accordingly.
If you have practical experience with 3D printers and their electronics, you will be able to upgrade the Anet A8 to keep it from going up in flames. If not, you will either need a professional or, for your own safety, look for an established 3D printer in the 250-300 dollar price range.
Best 3D Printers Under $300
Why is there an Increased Risk of Fire in 3D Printing?
During the printing process, hot plastic is applied to an equally hot building plate. The average temperature is 220 degrees Celsius, which is also the temperature in an oven.
The causes of fire are usually not to be found in the actual process, but rather in the equipment used. The consequences are plate fires, flared nozzles or destroyed power supplies. But often there are also a multitude of possible fire sources at the workplace.
These include spray cans of cleaning and lubricating agents or flammable hairspray placed near the 3D printer. Exposed or poorly routed cables pose an additional hazard.
How Does the 3D Printer Cause a Fire?
The wide variety of 3D printers available on the market is compliant with government regulations and therefore considered safe. However, this is also reflected in the purchase price of such a secure printer, which can quickly exceed 1000 dollars.
Best 3D Printers under $1000
In particular, users who prefer 3D printing as a hobby are increasingly turning to very affordable 3D printer kits from China, which are available for hundreds of dollars. You should know, however, that such a kit is potentially very dangerous. The power supplies built into the printer are not tested, the circuit boards often have insufficient solder joints and the other processed components are often of poor quality.
In addition, such 3D printers are increasingly made of acrylic glass, which further promotes the spread of a developing fire. In addition to the high risk of fire, these kits also have an increased risk due to wiring work, which can normally only be carried out by qualified electricians. If not expertly executed, such work carries the risk of being injured or even killed by an electric shock.
General Information on Fire Protection
First and foremost, you should always ensure that your apartment or house has a sufficient number of functioning smoke detectors*. This is easy to check and is not only advisable when using a 3D printer.
When the 3D printer is used to produce complex or large print jobs, they can be time-consuming. However, if you do not want to spend 20 hours or more next to your device, it is recommended that you arrange for automatic fire extinguishers to be placed near the printer.
The range of fire protection solutions available on the market, specifically designed for 3D printing technology, is also constantly expanding. For example, 3DPrintClean has developed an automatic fire extinguishing system that is especially useful when you cannot monitor your 3D printer around the clock.
Smoke Signal is another protective measure developed by a full-time aeronautical engineer and part-time tinkerer. This smoke detector is connected to the 3D printer by attaching it partially near the nozzle or to the electronics inside the 3D printer. If smoke is detected, the device immediately detects it and automatically shuts down the printer.
In order to be prepared for the worst case, you should have household insurance. This is highly recommended even if there is no 3D printer in your home.
Preventive Firefighting Begins at the 3D Printer Itself
Especially if you want to print jobs remotely in the future, the right printer functions will help to minimize risks. Most fires caused by 3D printers are electrical fires.
These are mainly caused by wires, terminals or individual components becoming so hot that either plastic insulation develops fire or other parts are ignited which are in direct contact with the wire. Many variants of wire insulation and connectors are already flame retardant.
So if overheating occurs, the plastic melts first. However, the plastic has an additional chemical that prevents it from actively catching fire, even in contact with an open flame. By contrast, most of the other plastic parts of a 3D printer are not normally flame retardant, so a single defect can set fire to the entire device.
So, you should first carefully check all the components of your 3D printer.
Some points you should pay special attention to are:
The frame of a 3D printer represents the largest combustible part when it is actually a flammable material. For example, wood is a suitable material from a mechanical point of view, but it is an extremely hazardous material from a fire safety standpoint.
While even an acrylic frame can catch fire, the best choice is an all-metal frame, which does not burn under normal conditions. But even with a metal frame, the printer has numerous other plastic parts, such as spiral wraps on the cables or various V-slot covers.
Ordinary filament is highly flammable. You should consider using one of the newer, flame-retardant filaments in 3D printing in the future. This is especially true if you store the filament in locations close to cables, electronics or heaters.
Many 3D printers with filament sensors will suspend or stop the print job if a material shortage is detected. Make sure that both the hot end and the heated print bed are turned off.
Ender 3 Filament Runout Sensor – Guide
Hot End Temperature Monitoring
Always make sure your 3D printer monitors nozzle temperature and shuts off power to the hot end when safe limits are exceeded. Prusa printers in particular are characterized by this feature.
The housing not only controls the temperature, but also reduces noise and improves air quality. A suitable housing can also help prevent the spread of a fire that has started. Refractory panels for lining air ducts are an excellent way to add an extra layer of refractory material to an enclosure.
You should also take a good look at your 3D printer’s electronics and check for weaknesses. The most important things to consider here are the connectors, as well as the general resilience of the individual components.
Cheap power supply units can mean an increased danger. However, the market has encouraged manufacturers to upgrade their units. Check your power supplies for both certification and fuse, adequate wire size and connectors.
The connectors should be designed for the current drawn from hot ends and heated printing beds. If you feel that your 3D printer’s equipment is inadequate, it is advisable to consider upgrading.
3D printers offered by reputable manufacturers usually have high-quality connectors. However, you should always make sure that the connector supports and can handle the resistance that is created. Especially the heated bed should be mentioned here.
If the resistance is too high, the connections are heated up so much that overheating can occur. As a result, the plastic covers surrounding the connections may melt. In the worst case, this can lead to fire development.
What all screw connections have in common is that they have a kind of flap to protect the cabling. So it is not only the screw itself that presses on the copper strands but also an intermediate layer that prevents the individual strands from breaking off.
However, if you are using a screw connection that does not include an intermediate layer, you should either include a solid core wiring or add a crimp to the end of the wire.
Loose connections can cause resistance. This in turn causes heat, which in turn can cause a fire. Therefore, it is recommended to replace insufficient connectors. Check the amperage indicated on the connector to ensure that the correct power rating is available.
A MOSFET represents only a simple switch. It allows switching even large currents, which are needed for example for the operation of the heating bed, by a low current input as the control signal.
In general, every printer has MOSFETs. However, in order to avoid a possible fire hazard, an external MOSFET module next to the board is meant, which can be used to bypass the power needed for the heating bed or other large consumers via separate cables from the power supply unit to the board. In this function, a MOSFET can reduce higher fire risk in case of low-quality terminals or bad boards.
Since the expected currents in a 24 V system are much lower than, for example, in a 12 V system, this can usually be achieved without an external MOSFET. In general, a high-quality board does not require any additional MOSFETs. However, if you own a cheap printer kit from China, you should check it carefully in this respect.
You should also carefully check the fuses to reduce the risk of fire to your 3D printer. Your power supply usually has a possible resistance of 25 or 30 amps, so that it can output a maximum of this current before it is automatically turned off for safety reasons.
So if you short-circuit the output directly at the supply, this is no problem at all. The power supply is simply cut off. If you imagine that a short circuit occurs directly at the cartridge heater, the only resistance at the output is the MOSFET and the wires.
This can often result in enough current flowing now to melt the wiring, which of course is not designed for the strength of such currents. However, there is not enough current to trigger the overcurrent protection of the power supply. So what you need are single fuses, which must be located not only at the input but also at each separate output.
Again, the power supply itself already has built-in self-protection, but this is not sensitive enough to protect every single power with lower power consumption.
A rule of thumb is that a good and reliable safety level should be at least 20 percent above the expected current. This means that for a 12 V 30 W cartridge heater, which normally consumes about 2.5 A, you should use a 3 A fuse.
For a 12 V heating bed, which normally consumes about 12 A, a 15 A fuse is the optimal choice. You can look around for car fuses, for example. You can also find suitable holders for them in specialist shops and they are usually available at a reasonable price. Such a purchase is definitely cheaper for you than replacing a completely burned out printer.
Excessive Cable Elongation
Heating cables without appropriate tensile load represent a further source of danger. Basically, this is a ticking time bomb, as the individual cable strands become weaker over time and eventually break.
This can also often be observed in charging cables for smartphones. At the point where the cable strands begin to break, they reduce the strength of the cable to the few remaining strands, but the intensity of the current is still the same so that this point heats up continuously faster.
This can result in an electrically triggered fire. Cheap 3D printers, in particular, with inadequate quality often show this problem.
To avoid excessive cable stretching and the resulting risks, you should first create a strain relief. Make sure that the cables are spread over a longer length and that there are no sharp bends at individual points.
A good and effective solution can be to put a flexible wire around all cables. This bundles the existing cabling in an attractive and at the same time stable way and thus creates the stability you want. However, make sure that both ends are attached in such a way that they cannot bend. Flexible cables are available in all possible sizes, but you should try to use the smallest size, as the larger models often become very bulky and stiff at the same time.
Another option is a spiral winding. The cables are now well bundled, but it still does not completely prevent them from kinking. A semi-flexible filament such as nylon can prevent them from kinking at the same place over and over again and then tangling with the rest of the cables.
Proper Functioning of the Firmware
There are two factors that will ensure that your 3D printer can work properly: The first is the hardware, which should be optimally prepared for each step of the printing process. The next point is the firmware included in the printer. This is usually activated in time before serious malfunctions can occur. So you should also examine this carefully.
A modern, well-configured firmware will thoroughly check the 3D printer and make sure everything is correct. It will calculate appropriate temperatures in the hot end and the heated print bed and take into account the time it takes to reach these temperatures. The firmware also allows you to check all values once the previously calculated temperature has been reached. If the temperature of the hot end is close to the previously determined maximum temperature, the firmware ensures that the printer is switched off before this temperature can be exceeded and, in the worst case, the heating element falls out.
These verification features are enabled by default in newer versions of Marlin firmware. However, some manufacturers deactivate them, as these protective measures can be triggered for no reason in individual cases and a print can be stopped erroneously. In general, however, it is recommended that you enable them and update the firmware again. Normally you will benefit from a wider range of functions, better performance and increased reliability of your device.
Other Preventive Fire Measures
Checking your equipment is only the first step. Other aspects you should consider are:
Keep your device clean
Fans and stepper motors in amateur 3D printers are typically small enough to tolerate slight blocking without overheating. However, it is still a good idea to carefully remove the small pieces of lint or plastic from time to time. Also, check the bottom of the heating bed. Small accumulations of dust are also excellent sources of fire.
Ensure a tidy work area
As already mentioned, the environment of your printer should always be tidy. A room where a 3D printer is located is not the right place to stack books or various papers. Keep the work area clear so that nothing in the immediate vicinity can heat up.
For remote printing in particular, the ideal place for a 3D printer is a fireproof room, but most users will not have that. So it’s even more important to remove the hazards you can control. The printer should not necessarily be placed on a wooden shelf or cabinet, but on a metal shelf instead.
The execution of remote printing and its monitoring
With printing processes that take many hours or even days to complete, you may not be able to stay at home all the time or keep an eye on your 3D printer. But there are different ways to maintain some control and ensure that you can intervene if necessary.
With the cloud-enabled cameras now available on the market, as well as a variety of security alarms and switches, remote monitoring and control over long distances are both straightforward and affordable. Remember, all of these devices also pass through the cloud application and storage of the respective provider. To prevent unauthorized access to your cameras or switches, it is imperative that you use a random login and a complex password.
Virtually any surveillance camera with WiFi connectivity can be connected to a smartphone for remote viewing. Get a device with near-focus capabilities and real-time Internet access. For example, Reolink offers a range of different cameras at an affordable price. These allow you to monitor your printing process free of charge. In general, you should always look for free remote access, since many providers’ devices only require a paid subscription.
Top Cameras & Apps for Surveillance & Time Lapse
Cameras for surveillance connect via a WLAN router. It is best to set up this router in another room. Here you have the possibility of a two-channel setup. This allows you to point one camera at the print bed while the other is focused on the printer control screen. This gives you control over both the printer status and the printing status itself. This can also be useful if you are not out of the house, but are in an adjacent room.
A fire alarm* is another mandatory measure for remotely monitoring your 3D printing. Of course, you may not be able to keep a constant eye on the cameras. A WLAN-enabled alarm, on the other hand, calls a pre-defined number when it is triggered by a fire.
As you already know, the fastest way to solve a printer problem is to simply turn it off. One way you can do this remotely is to use a smart connector*.
These can be controlled with Alexa, Google Assistant or IFTTT, for example, and can be used from anywhere via a simple application on the smartphone. Combined with some remote cameras, this allows you to have both your eyes and your virtual hands on your 3D printer at all times.
OctoPrint – The Ultimate Solution for Remote Control of your 3D Printer
OctoPrint is an open-source application that provides you with an embedded webcam feed that keeps track of both the hot end and the print bed temperatures. In addition, you can remotely control the position of the print head and start, stop or pause a print job.
However, to use this advanced software, you need to add a so-called Raspberry Pi* to your 3D printer as an intermediate control. While this is not as easy as connecting a camera, it’s a great way to add control to your remote printing.
List of Best Cameras & Webcams for Octoprint + Guide
Careful preparation, comprehensive remote monitoring and WiFi control are all essential to prevent a potential fire from entering the 3D printer. However, there is no complete guarantee that the printer will not catch fire due to unfortunate circumstances.
If you can’t constantly monitor your printer remotely and turn off the power when necessary, you’ll wonder what other options you have to avoid taking a greater risk in 3D printing. In this case, the key is carefully considered automation. Professional 3D printing facilities use halon systems, which immediately cover the affected area with fire extinguishing gas. However, there are also various solutions for hobby printers:
- First of all, the mentioned fire alarm is the simplest and most basic measure against possible damage caused by fire. This is an absolute must unless you have a professional security service that continuously monitors your house.
- The next step is a camera to protect against possible false alarms.
- An automatic fire extinguisher is another effective option. Usually the AFO (Automatic Fire Off) balls contained in the fire extinguisher are automatically activated within five to ten seconds after contact with a flame. You can attach them to a cabinet or simply place them on the frame of your 3D printer. When activated, they leave quite a mess, but they can prevent even greater damage.
Is there an alternative to the MOSFETS?
Instead of a MOSFET, an SSR* can be used as an alternative to reduce the load on the printer board. SSR stands for Solid State Relays and represents electronic switches that are able to control other components by processing the control signals of a transmitter. When an SSR is integrated into a 3D printer, it processes the control signals from the control board to control the heating bed.
An SSR offers the advantage that the heating current does not flow as usual from the power supply via the control board to the heating bed, but can run exclusively via the SSR. The connections on the board are spared as the control board only has to control the SSR with a low load.
However, the SSR also has the disadvantage that it has a relatively high electrical resistance, which is higher than in a normal cable. As a result, the SSR can become very hot under certain circumstances. An additional mounting of a heat sink, which can affect the SSR, is therefore advisable.
What components are required to install an SSR?
An SSR for the heating bed is installed to relieve the load on the current-carrying components of the printer board. For this purpose, the components are first positioned as they are required in the final setup.
These ideally include a highly flexible silicone cable, wire end sleeves or cable lugs, which are attached to the ends of the stripped cables for safety reasons, a crimping tool and the solid state relay. Furthermore, it is recommended to mount a heat sink for the SSR. The cables can optionally be additionally insulated with insulating tape or shrink tubing.
What else is needed so that an SSR already installed can contribute to fire protection?
Installing an SSR also helps to protect the 3D printer from fire, as both the printer board and power connections do not become as hot as they used to. However, an additional safety measure should be taken: The use of Marlin firmware is a further step, in addition to the SSR, to increase the safety of the 3D printing process.
This firmware includes Thermal Runaway Protection, which further protects the 3D printer by ensuring that if a certain temperature is exceeded, the power to both the nozzle and the heating bed is cut off and the printer is disabled. To ensure that this feature is enabled within the Marlin firmware, it is recommended that you update the firmware when you start up the printer.
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ExOne Announces "Office" Metal and Ceramic 3D Printer
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ExOne is taking orders for a relatively compact and safe additive system for the production of sintered metal and ceramic products. The 3D printer relies on robocasting technology and prints with water-based inks.
An additive complex consisting of a Metal Designlab 3D printer and an X1F oven was developed by the Canadian startup Rapidia, founded by engineer Daniel Gelbart. The most striking success of this inventor, who owns more than a hundred different patents, was Creo, bought out by Kodak Corporation in 2005 for about a billion dollars. Daniel maintains his own Youtube channel, where you can find a whole series of videos on prototyping. Under the terms of the strategic agreement, ExOne has acquired the right of first refusal for a controlling interest in Rapidia, and Gelbart will take up the position of technical adviser to ExOne.
This is the first experience of this kind for ExOne, since before that the company dealt exclusively with industrial inkjet-powder additive systems, and the Metal Designlab 3D printer is an extrusion system that prints with water-based metal and ceramic pastes. The highlight lies precisely in the material, which makes it possible to dispense with the intermediate stage of chemical etching and send freshly printed blanks directly to the sintering oven into finished products. The other day, a similar solution was proposed by Desktop Metal: the second generation of the Studio System also allows you to do without etching the binder material. By the way, ExOne positions the Metal Designlab 3D printer as a direct competitor to the Studio System 2 from Desktop Metal and Metal X from Markforged, although these systems do not use pastes, but specialized filaments.
The process itself is quite safe due to the absence of the need to use both toxic chemicals and potentially flammable and harmful to light fine powders. Together with compact dimensions, this makes the system suitable for office use. So far, two consumables based on 17-4PH and 316L stainless steels are offered to users, but the company plans to expand the range with other metal pastes and add ceramic options. Interestingly, printed parts can be glued together before sintering by simply wetting the surfaces to be joined with water.
The system is available with standard 0.4 mm and 0.6 mm nozzles, but other nozzle diameters can be fitted if required. With a 0.6 mm nozzle, the output exceeds 40 cubic centimeters per hour. The size of the construction area is 200x280x150 mm. The 3D printer is equipped with two heads for printing the main and support material. Filling is carried out using reusable cartridges with a capacity of 900 ml, containing about 4-5 kg of material, depending on the type of metal filler used.
ExOne is already taking pre-orders, with shipments scheduled for the second quarter of this year. Additional information is available on the official website of the manufacturer at this link.
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Stavropol | Stavropol developer of a 3D printer for printing houses received more than 200 applications
Photo: images. pobeda26.ruIn Stavropol, by the end of 2021, they are going to launch mass production of 3D printers for construction printing. The company intends to start producing four devices per month.
Now the company has created only one small-format 3D printer, but a full-format one is under development. According to the company's CEO Dmitry Prokhorenko, two models will be produced in Stavropol. They will be delivered throughout Russia, as well as to Europe and the Middle East.
« As soon as we establish a customer service in Russia, we will simultaneously start contracts for deliveries to Europe and the Middle East. This is on condition that we find partners there who will organize maintenance of 3D printers , ”said the CEO.
After the creation of the small-format printer, the Stavropol company received about 200 inquiries about the product. About 10 more turned out to be offers for acquisition. The latest applications came from Vladivostok and Kazakhstan.
« The market is ready for this, people are waiting, but so far not a single company has been able to declare itself as a stable worker. We want to do this for the first time ,” says Prokhorenko.
Now the United Arab Emirates is especially interested in 3D printers, as they intend to bring the number of printed houses to 25 percent of existing ones by 2030.
« They need hundreds and hundreds of printers. In Europe, 3D printers are also being created, but their cost is unrealistically high, so I see this as a disadvantage as a consumer. The average builder will be comfortable working with our equipment, so we can compete well with other countries and make our printers affordable ,” explained the CEO of SmartBuild .
How much will the first residential building in Russia, printed on a printer in Stavropol, read in the material of the news agency Pobeda26.
Photo: Sergey Parkhisenko/Pobeda26IA Pobeda 26 IA Pobeda 26 IA Pobeda 26 IA Pobeda 26 IA Pobeda 26 Article author: Tamara Shalamova Photographer: Information and Public Relations Department of the North Caucasus Federal University Stavropol, 9October 2022
City Telegraph Author of the article: Viktor Slobodenyuk Photographer: press service of the Krasnodar branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "UVO of the Ministry of Transport of Russia" Krasnodar, October 12, 2022
City Telegraph Author of the article: Tamara Shalamova Photographer: Kavkaz. RF Press Service Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, October 10, 2022
City Telegraph Employees of the UGIBDD in the Stavropol Territory are establishing the causes and circumstances of a road accident that occurred the night before, October 16, in the regional center.
IA Pobeda 26 The Regional State Traffic Inspectorate warns Stavropol residents that due to adverse weather conditions, visibility on the roads of the region is limited.
News.1777.Ru On October 15, traffic police officers of the Stavropol Territory suspended 48 drivers who were driving while intoxicated.
IA Pobeda 26 Photo: pixabay.com/18427938 The number of diseases is 6 times less. In the Stavropol Territory, the number of recoveries from coronavirus over the past day was 299 people.
TV channel SvoyoTV The head of the Stavropol Territory said that over the past day, another 299 people were discharged from under the supervision of doctors in connection with recovery from the coronavirus.