How to build a concrete 3d printer

MudBots 3D Concrete Printers - Print a House

Our printers come in a variety of sizes, from smaller 15'x15' up to 100'x50'

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Want to see how much you will save when 3D Printing a home versus traditional building? Check out our cost calculator.

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Marketable Designs

We’ve been told that if the printer wasn’t any faster and wasn’t any cheaper to build with, it would still be the most significant tool ever, because it allows architects everywhere to begin offering designs that were cost prohibitive in the past.

Consumers are tired of the costs associated with conceptual designs. Traditional construction is limiting without astronomical costs. Architects have the ideas, but most consumers aren’t willing to pay for them. With a printer the cost between boring and amazing is the same.


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3D Print Walls

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3D Print Fireplace

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3D Print Monument Letters

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3D Print Benches

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3D Print Fences and Walls

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3D Print Signs

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3D Print Monuments

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3D Print Fountains

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3D Print Retainer Blocks

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3d Print Monument and Waterfalls

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3D Print Planters

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3D Print Sheds

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3D Print Monument Boulders

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3D Print Drainage

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No More Forming

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3D Print Stairs

How It Works


Concrete printing is possible with the construction of a large 3D printer capable of printing large scale structures, from spas and barbeques to homes and larger commercial buildings, without the need of traditional framing, forming or blocks. MudBots offers printers from 15' x 15' up to 100' x 100'.


There are hundreds of different mix formulas that closely resemble a mortar type mix. Each mix requires months of testing for different characteristics, such as fluidity, bonding, water impenetrability, Seismic resistance, as well as curing and strength. Mixes are designed for 1200 PSI up to 10,000 PSI, depending on the structure and engineered objectives.


First step is to decide what you want to print.


The next step is to conceptualize a 2D design using a CAD program, and then converting the design to a 3D model using any 3D software that can export an STL file.


Once the 3D model is ready, the STL file is imported into a slicing software, where the height of each printed pass is specified.

After slicing the model into individual print passes, the system exports the code which is interpreted into actual nozzle movement.


Electrical boxes and plumbing are added during the print leaving perfect finish without gaps.


The mix is batched on site after which, the liquid ingredients are added to the dry mixes and mixed for delivery to a computer-controlled pump, which works in unison with the printer to control nozzle speed, and the volume rate of material at the nozzle.


After printing the walls, windows and doors are cut out while the print is still green, leaving perfect openings for window/door casings.


The key to printing without stopping every 12" as seen by the rest of the world, is utilizing a batch plant that meters all the dry and liquid ingredients as the temperature, wind and humidity change. the mix formula being used at 5am is not the mix being used an hour later. MudBots provides a variety of mix formulas with differing strengths and cure times without being forced to buy proprietary mixes and paying 5 times as much when everything needed is already available at local batch plants.


Step 1

Three men assembly in 3 hours without any lifting devices or need for heavy footings

Step 2

Print layout for footings with spray nozzle attachment

Step 3

Move printer for escavators in just 10 minutes

Step 4

Print forms for footings and flatwork

Step 5

Print walls up to 10' without stopping

Step 6

Add electrical boxes, rebar, and trowel walls while printing

Understanding What We Do & Don't Do

Here's how you can save.

Layout for Footings Dig

The first cost savings will be the elimination of 3 men, string lines, and marking paint. Simply add the airless attachment to the nozzle of the printer, and your entire layout for footing is done in minutes. Push the printer out of the way and start digging.

(The printer is able to print forms for footings)

Footing Forming

The layout and forming for footings and stem walls are very time-consuming. It takes a lot of lumber, diesel, stakes, and labor that is no longer necessary. Simply level the area, compact them, level the four corners of your printer, and PRINT.

(Forms do not need to be stripped when printed)

Footing Stripping

Perfect level and square forms are printed right from the computer. Grading is also easier, as the only real important level is the 4 corners of the printer. Printer can be set up for uneven grades.

(The printer can print the forms for slab)

Slab Forming

The slab layout and forming is critical to all other subs on the job. If a mistake is made at this point of the project, nothing else is square, and all other subs suffer. With the Concrete Printers, the house is square every time.

Slab Finishing

Not there yet, but our concrete printer will be finishing slabs within the next 6 to 12 months, and can be ordered as an option. If you’re waiting for all the options to be available before buying, you’ll never buy a printer, because we will never stop innovating. All upgrades will be available and are designed to be added to all of our printers.

(We can print basements)


Our printers easily print basement walls without the need of forming, backfilling, stripping forms, forming interior walls, drywall, insulation or taping. All of this is done by the printer.

(There is no need for the labor or time to do layout on slab)

Framing Layout

The printer knows where your wall is going to be. No chalk lines needed. Once the slab is poured, all you have to do is hit print.

(No need for framing)


No warped studs, better fire rating, no mildew. No matter how you look at it, printing a home is far better than framing a home. Concrete printing is faster, more accurate, just better all around.

(No need to drill studs for electrical)

Rough Electrical

This is not necessary as walls can be printed that are hollow. Depending on the mix that is used, there is also no need for rebar or solid pour exterior and bearing walls. We know the idea of exterior walls and bearing walls without rebar seems ridiculous, but it's time to learn something new. Look up 20,000 PSI concrete and geopolymer. It's real.

(No need to drill studs for plumbing)

Rough Plumbing

This isn’t necessary as walls can be printed hollow. Same as above. Your electrical and plumbing will be less expensive.

(Printed walls are finished without additive material during the print)


You will still need to hang the lid, but not the walls. This goes for the basement. Just trowel the printed wall and when done, it's as smooth as a 3-coat drywall. Most countries do not wood frame at all. They build with bricks and then send a crew of mason finishers, and when it’s done, it’s smooth as anything.

(No need for taping as the walls are troweled smooth during printing)


Some print finishes may not need to be finished if acceptable to the customer. Taping takes days for each coat to dry. This is not the case with mason finishing. Within 3 hours of the walls being printed, the walls are already finished.


If builders want to finish the smooth walls with a knock down broquet, orange peel or other finish, just come back the next day and spray with a hopper, top coat and trowel.

(Exterior walls are finished during the print)

Stucco / Siding

No paper, mesh or additive material is needed. This isn't a process that is done days after framing and sheeting. The finish is done real time as the wall is printing.

(Printers can be purchased with an insulation attatchment)


You can have any R Factor you want depending on the density and material. A solid concrete wall has an R9 Value. If you print a hollow wall and back fill with fiberglass, polystyrene or cellulose, you can achieve any R value you desire.

(Mudbots is working on a composite truss system that can be printed on site)


Additionally, house plans can be modified to allow for dome roofing, which can also eliminate trussing and sheeting costs. The truss system utilizes the same printer, but with the use of a different mixer/pumping system. As new advances become available, they will be bolt-on solutions with your existing printer.


More and more customers are starting to experiment with additional uses. Underground is definitely something worth considering. The cost is high for underground but can be significantly reduced by printing on site.

Landscape and Hardscape

The 3D Concrete Printer is a landscaper’s dream. Never before could you have offered products at a fraction the cost of your competition while still earning profits. It is basically unheard of. Developers will rethink their offerings when they realize how affordable the little extras are. The extras will set them apart from all the others.

Pool and Spa

By now, you may be realizing how significantly concrete printing is about to change so many industries. Pool and spa is just another market that will benefit. The cost for traditional pool construction is about to change. Homes can be sold with included water features at a fractional cost.


Very seldom do we see breathtaking signage. Everyone is looking for ways to stand out, but it keeps getting back to budgets. Imagine the development entries that are possible now. These printers like to print and with everything they can do, it would be foolish to have any down time.

Registration is required to access our Cost Calculators. We provide online tools for calculating the cost for mix formulas and “side by side” project costs comparisons using 3D technology.

Apples Comparison Test New

Complete the worksheet to have a better idea of where you will save in terms of Materials and Labor.

Bag Cost

Use this worksheet to determine the Cubic Inch Cost of the ingredients that will be used in the specialty mix for printing.

Mix Formula

This is a necessary first step to determine the material cost of any mix formula.

3D Printing Costs

Use this calculator to estimate costs to build using concrete printing over traditional construction methods.

Will It Pass Code?

First time callers don’t have any problem recognizing that concrete printing would be far faster and cheaper. They also don’t question the feasibility of learning the tech. The single most asked question relates to passing code. No fear of the tech, just fear of their building department.

Truth is concrete printers are already building homes and commercial buildings all around the world, so when considering the application in your backyard, here are a few things to consider.

ICF Construction

The best way to wrap your head around concrete printing is to start with the basics, and there is no better way than to liken 3D Concrete Printing, or 3DCP, to Insulated Concrete Block construction. ICF code is accepted everywhere yet a foam block has virtually no structural strength at all. So when you are considering how you would pass code, keep ICF in mind. For the most part, a concrete printer is doing nothing more than printing a hollow wall shell that can be filled with rebar and concrete. The only difference is foam has no strength at all, compared to what we print in most cases, which is twice the strength of cinderblock.

CMU Construction

Now with that in mind, let's look at the similarities with CMU (Cinderblock). No one questions the ability to build with cinderblock. While we don’t encourage it, take into consideration the fact that you can print walls that are the exact dimension and design as cinderblock yet twice as much the strength, and without grouted joints that are susceptible to seismic cracking.

The advantage of concrete printing is the ability to print hollow walls which reduced costs for electrical, plumbing and insulation. Additionally, hollow walls can be insulated to almost an R factor with ease with the absence obstructive studs.

The challenge isn’t whether or not it's possible, as it's already being done everywhere. The challenge is whether or not you can find a structural engineer that makes it possible. It's all about math. The code already exists, all you have to do is exceed the code, and to do that, you need to start with the mix.

Testing and Math

We have developed and tested a myriad of different mixes with different characteristics, such as PSI, tensile strength, water impenetrability, fire resistance, as well as cold weather mixes, hot weather mixes, accelerated mixes, and retarded mixes. We provide the formulas and the lab results that your engineer will need to determine what the wall designs will be. Once they have the testing results, they can design a wall that exceeds any code anywhere.

Some choose to stay close to traditional methods by printing walls that resemble ICF and CMU, but others, who have more confidence, take it all the way by utilizing stronger mixes, so that they can capitalize on ALL the cost-saving benefits.

Plans and Details

As for the other considerations, we have plenty of videos that address common questions about headers, attaching hurricane straps, installing electrical boxes, securing plumbing, mounting top plates for trussing and methods for tying the wall to the foundation. Although, most engineers want to see the methods being used by others first before reinventing the wheel, as they learn more and more until there isn’t a question that they can’t offer up to 4 or 5 solutions when asked. Most of this is common sense, nevertheless, we have the plan details and math to share.

As we’re saying this, bear in mind that every state, and sometimes even cities, have different building codes. What we will share is determined by specific code and conditions that are not specific to your state. Far too many factors come into play, such as mix characteristics, code, water table, frost level, annual snow loads, wind, seismic, soil compaction for starters. We do not provide structural engineering, but we can point you in the right direction.

What are your
Deal Breakers?

Everyone who is considering the use of concrete printing has a lot of work to do before they can commit to a purchase. There is no shortcut. The investment of time is inevitable. As you start down the path to making a decision, it’s easy to get confused as to what’s most important, and where you should spend your time, but as you consider the options presented to you, there will be some paths that obviously are a waste of time. Everyone needs to know what their deal breakers are. They will be different for each person, but from speaking with others, we have a pretty good idea of what most consider their deal breakers.


From the onset, our engineers understood the importance of creating a design that had all the same features but was also easily understood. A printer that is lightweight and easily assembled in the field. MudBots printers weigh 75% less than any printers in the industry, with an assembly time that is 80% faster. This is a printer that does it all, does it faster, and is half the price of anyone.

Basements and Second Story

In some parts of the world, the ability to print basements and a second story isn’t a big deal, but in North America, it’s essential. Look around and you will find that most printers in this marketplace don’t have the ability to do either without tremendous unnecessary excavation or back filling. If you’re going to invest in a printer, most agree that the ability to quickly set up for footings, basements and second story is a must.


Look at any other printer and you will recognize right off that assembly is going to be an expensive challenge. Imagine the worst IKEA assembly ever. That’s about what you get. Think about parts that are heavy to manage without forklifts and cranes, imagine hundreds of nuts and bolts. In some cases, needles cosmetic plastics that serve no function, waste hours of assembly, and will undoubtedly be broken and expensive to replace. Most printer designs make sense to the engineers that built them, but not so much to the contractors that will need to assemble it in the field. A 20' x 20' MudBots printer can be assembled with 2 workers in two hours without any mechanical lifting. MudBots can also be moved from one lot to another without disassembly by simply adding wheels. Additionally, the printer can print entire structures without being moved multiple times.

Proprietary Mixes

If you think your printer cartridges are expensive, wait until you have to buy and ship proprietary concrete mixes from halfway around the world or even the USA. MudBots is the only ones that provide the mix formulas for your printer and allow you to use any mix without voiding your warranty. This should be a deal breaker for everyone as they begin to realize what they will be paying for are mixes that are (mostly) available at their local hardware store, not to mention the cost of and any delay in shipping.

Customer Service

Does it feel like the others are sleeping on the job? There is far more to consider when thinking who to buy from than a few online videos and website. This is a significant purchase for most, but as you're out knocking on doors, the one thing you should consider the most is customer service. Start calling around and you’ll discover that there’s no one to talk to. Phone numbers are hidden, and emails go unanswered for weeks. You have to ask yourself, if no one will talk to you now when you have the money on hand, what’s it going to be like when you need support.


If you’ve been lucky enough to get this far with anyone, the first thing you will find is that MudBots isn’t just a little better in price. MudBots is 1/2 to 1/3 the price of other printers, with more features and options than anyone. Price is always a factor, as well as ROI. Do the numbers and you’ll find that within 60 days, you’ll have already paid for your printer in savings, and likely will be looking for your second purchase because of the advantages.


Most of our customers contact us because they are excited about the income possibilities that our printers will offer them, but for this very reason, the greater opportunity is in securing the exclusive distribution rights for their state. By merely owning and using our printers, our customers will undoubtedly generate tremendous excitement as they begin printing unbelievable designs at a third the cost and a third the time. It would be impossible to keep such a tool a secret. As news of this innovation begins making its way to the public, demand will become unimaginable. Since our customers are creating the exposure and excitement, it’s only right that they share in the success and residual income opportunity.


Most contracts start off with optimism and the best intentions, but if you’ve been doing this a while, you have learned that in the event of any legal actions, jurisdiction is an issue. If you’ve ever had to litigate outside your state, you recognize the challenges, but litigating outside the country is altogether different. We take a lot for granted in America, but that is not the case intentionally. Imagine trying to hire legal counsel abroad and trying to interpret international laws. This does not certainly offer home court advantage, and asking anyone who has tried, you’ll see that this is problematic at best. But even if you prevail, collecting on a judgement with corporate assets abroad is nearly impossible.

Master Dealer
  • We thought so!

  • Want more time with your family?

  • Want to earn over 100K a month?

  • Want to have your own company?

MudBots is looking for the best. If you have a background in construction, love new technology, and especially love business in general, you're in the right place. MudBots has developed the first line of 3D Concrete Printers available to the world. Media everywhere is saying that the new technology will change the construction industry forever. Seldom do opportunities come along with the huge market interest and untapped market. This is what business opportunist dream of.

Quality of Life

Success is measured in many ways, but true success is measured by the peace a person feels when they know they are doing something they love, their efforts are rewarded with increased gain, and they have the time to enjoy both with the ones they love. There are countless ways to make a living, but if you don’t enjoy what you’re doing or you don’t have the time to enjoy anything else, it’s hard to be satisfied. MudBots Master Dealers enjoy all three. They earn a remarkable living, they have the freedom to work when they want and because of their success, they get to focus on the more important things in life – their Family.

Job Description

The only way to manage a company that is growing as fast as MudBots is to have qualified individuals in every region of the country who can demonstrate products and serve their dealers. The Master Dealer program gives the company and its dealers the representation needed while offering a significant opportunity to those who embrace the call.

Exclusive Region

As an RMD, you will be given an exclusive license to represent and profit off of ALL the MudBots sales in your state/region. It is generally a full state, but in larger markets, a state may be divided to provide for better reachability and service.

Residual Income

There are many ways to profit as an RMD but the “residual commission” is by far the most enticing. Sell it once and continue earning for years to come. As an RMD you will earn up to 10% on every printer sold. With printers ranging from 284k to 1.3 million, it’s not hard to see how lucrative the venture can be. If RMDs sign up one new dealer every month who sells one printer a month within 12 months, depending on the profit sharing each RMD sets up with their dealers, earning after 12 months of work with 12 compliant dealers should be well over 100k a month. Why so much? Quite simply, we want to attract the best in the industry. An organization is only as good as its people. We want professionals, self-motivated individuals who are passionate about building their own business along ours.


One of the best thing about concrete printers is the recession-proof nature of products. If the economy slows, the need for faster and more affordable construction methods increases. Those trying to compete with traditional construction methods will quickly discover they can’t even come close, resulting in even more demand for MudBots products. Prospects can get on board now or wait until they are losing contracts without one.

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Minimum Requirements


Attend a 4-week training in Utah


Purchase two (2) demo printers equaling 500k or more


Must have a late model truck


Must have an enclosed branded trailer

   Demo Product

Demo product to 2 dealers each week

   1 Dealer / Month

Sign one dealer each month

Work or Fun

The best thing about a career with MudBots is that it’s just plain fun. As more and more ways are discovered for utilizing 3D Concrete Printers, every day is an exciting adventure. It’s fun to make money doing what you love and this is definitely an exciting product that sells itself. Industry professional everywhere are in awe when they see products being printed without the need of straight lines and forms. This is a product that people will watch for hours in amazement. The longer they watch, the more they realize how valuable 3D Printing will be to their business.

Getting Started

To get started, call and request an NDA and RMD application. Once accepted, you may attend the next RMD training where you will spend three full days of training and Q&A. You will learn about the industry, the opportunity, printer operation, specific mixes, lab testing, structure engineering, potential markets & marketing strategies. By the time you return home, you will be confident in your ability to promote and service the dealers in your area.

Welcome to MudBots.

Connect The Dots

As companies begin down this road the process and solutions for building with 3DCP’s can seem daunting at first but it doesn’t take much looking around to realize that answers and solutions are not far away. Here are some videos that will help with connecting those dots.

Fiber Cement Siding to Block

Hardy Plank over Block

Hardy Plank Siding on Block

Architectural Foam Accents

Applying Architectural Foam Accents

Spraying Finish on Artictectural Foam & Finishes (1/2)

Cement Screws and Fasteners

Cement Board Screws

Faux Concrete Wall Panels

Wall Cladding Systems

Concrete Counter Tops 1

How To Layout like a PRO - NOT NEEDED ANYMORE

Engineering Footings

Soil and Footings

Tiny Home Village - Making a Difference

Affordable Housing in Detroit

Spec Mix Delivery

Site Tools and Methods

Ultimate guide to construction 3D printers in 2022 (concrete 3D printing)

What are the best house 3D printers?

A construction 3D printer is a machine that can build houses by depositing a material (concrete for example) layer by layer. Concrete 3D printing – a.k.a. “Construction 4.0” – is a similar 3D printing technology to the one that FFF 3D printers use. Paste-type material, in this case, concrete or earth materials, is pushed through a nozzle in layers to print buildings in 3D.

Concrete 3D printing in the construction industry helps save time, effort, and material compared to traditional construction methods. It’s important to note, though, that 3D printers are not yet capable of creating a fully functional house.

Only the frame and walls of the house are built; other elements, such as windows, electricity, or plumbing, need to be installed separately. But concrete 3D printers can also be used to print bridges, benches, or simply outdoor decorations.

To provide a complete overview of the construction 3D printer market, we have listed 12 house 3D printing solutions. Some of them are 3D printers available for sale, while some are still at the start-up prototype stage or are external construction 3D printing services.

13 house construction 3D printers

House 3D printerCategory* Type** Build size (m) Country
BetAbram P1AvailableGantry system 16 x 8.2 x 2.5 Slovenia
COBOD BOD2Available Gantry system 14.62 x 50.52 x 8.14 Denmark
MAXI PRINTERAvailableRobotic arm 12. 25 x 12.25 x 7France
CyBe Construction CyBe RC 3DpAvailableRobotic arm 2.75 x 2.75 x 2.75 Netherlands
ICON Vulcan II Available Gantry system 2.6 x 8.5 x ∞ United States
MudBots 3D Concrete PrinterAvailable Gantry system 1.83 x 1.83 x 1.22 United States
Total Kustom StroyBot 6.2 Available Gantry system 10 x 15 x 6 United States
WASP Crane WASP AvailableDelta system Ø 6.3 x 3 Italy
Apis CorProjectRobotic arm 8.5 x 1.6 x 1.5 Russia
Batiprint3D 3D printer Project Robotic arm Up to 7m high France
SQ4D – ARCS Service Gantry system 9.1 x 4.4 x ∞ United States
Contour Crafting ServiceGantry system United States
XtreeEServiceRobotic arm France

Build volumes are indicative and may vary based on the specific configuration of the machine.

*Category: some 3D printers are available for sale, others are working projects, and some are only available via a rental service.
**Type: construction 3D printers either use a gantry system (like oversized desktop 3D printers with X, Y, and Z axes) or a mechanical, robotic arm.

How to build 3D printed houses?

Here we explain how 3D printers are able to print houses with paste extrusion.

House 3D printing technology

House 3D printers use extrusion technology. Some construction 3D printers look like super-sized desktop FFF/FDM 3D printers (gantry style), whereas others consist of a rotating mechanical arm.

In both cases, paste-type components such as concrete are used as filament. The material is pushed out of a special nozzle to form layers. To put it (very) simply, paste extrusion is similar to using a piping bag to spread frosting on a cake.

The printer creates the foundations and walls of the house or building, layer by layer. The ground is literally the printer’s build plate. Some concrete 3D printers, however, are used to 3D print brick molds. When molded, the bricks are then piled atop each other manually (or with a robotic arm).

WASP’s construction printer 3D printing with Earth materials (clay, soil). Source: WASP

Benefits of house 3D printing


3D printed houses can be built with organic, eco-friendly materials. Moreover, some house 3D printers use solar energy and generate low CO2 emissions.


House 3D printers can build affordable housing, being of great aid for people in poverty-stricken regions or after natural disasters.


Construction 3D printing reduces certain building costs. For example, the cost for 1 square meter of a wall using traditional construction methods is approximately $75, whereas with the Apis Cor house 3D printer it is only $27.


Since the materials are 3D printed on-demand, the machines produce less waste. Also, construction 3D printers can finish a home’s foundations in less than a few days, while traditional construction methods take several weeks or even months.

Design flexibility

With a 3D construction printer, it’s possible to easily create curved walls and unique facades. (Good thing it’s possible to 3D print furniture to match the curves!)

Limits of 3D printing houses

Expensive initial investment

House 3D printers can sometimes cost up to one million dollars.

Partially-built houses

House 3D printers only build house frames. The 3D printing process is usually paused to manually settle plumbing, wiring, and rebars.

Rough exterior

Most 3D printed homes’ exteriors are not as smooth as traditionally-built houses.

Lack of certification

Construction sites are regulated by laws and there are important safety standards that need to be met, which can be challenging with 3D printing techniques (varying repeatability, dimensional stability, etc.).

Another downside that has been noted over the years is that house 3D printing can potentially harm local economies, especially in poverty-stricken regions or cities with high unemployment rates. Indeed, since construction 3D printers reduce the need for manual labor, they create much less employment for local workers.

Differences between 3D printed houses and traditional houses

Concrete 3D printing saves time, uses less material, and requires less manual labor. Even 3D printed houses have a rougher exterior, post-processing is an option just as it is for regular 3D printed objects. 3D printed houses tend to be smaller due to 3D printer build volume limits, but this is not always the case.

Construction 3D printers: overview

We break down construction 3D printers into three categories: house 3D printers that are available for sale, concrete printer prototypes, and 3D concrete printing services.

House 3D printers available for sale

BetAbram is a small Slovenian team that has been working on construction 3D printing hardware since 2012. Their flagship home 3D printer, the BetAbram P1, is currently in its second version and is available with optional print heads: basic, “Orto” for smoother layers, and rotating for more design possibilities.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

This construction 3D printer is fast, reaching announced speeds of up to 60 meters per minute. The BOD2 is modular and can be adapted is many different sizes. COBOD is a 3D Printhuset company.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

Constructions-3D is a subsidiary of French 3D printer retailer Machines-3D.

Their MAXI PRINTER machine is mobile thanks to its caterpillar-style rubber tracks and fits into a 20-foot shipping container for easy transport from one construction site to another.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

The CyBe RC 3Dp consists of a single robotic arm with a nozzle at its end.

This easy-to-move house 3D printer is capable of reaching up to 2.75 meters high and requires only two people to operate it.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

ICON wishes to revolutionize the construction field with their Vulcan II printer. The whole process is designed to be user-friendly with a tablet-based interface, and ICON’s Lavacrete concrete mix is optimized to be easier to print.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

MudBots is a concrete 3D printer manufacturer based in the United States. Their smallest model (1830 x 1830 x 1220 mm approx.) is available at the price of $35,000. Larger build sizes are available as well, reaching up to 30 meters long.

According to MudBots, their 3D printers can 3D print a small house in only 12 hours and can drive costs down 70% compared to traditional construction methods.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

The StroyBot, also known as the Rudenko 3D construction printer (made by Andrey Rudenko), is an all-in-one mobile construction printing system delivered as a kit to be assembled by the user. On average, it is able to print a 100-square-meter house in 48 hours (walls only).

The Crane WASP is the evolution of WASP’s previous construction printer, the BigDeltaWASP 12MT. This open source construction printer is modular and multiple Crane printers can work together on one project, for theoretically infinite 3D printing possibilities.

Concrete printer working projects

Apis Cor, a 3D construction company, is based in San Francisco and claims to be able to 3D print a house in under 24 hours. Their Apis Cor printer is similar to a robotic arm and has won first place in NASA’s Phase 3 3D-Printed Habitat Competition.

Contact manufacturer Get a quote Add to comparison

Batiprint 3D made international headlines when completing their Yhnova 3D printed house in Nantes, France. Their 3D printer not only prints cement but also insulation foam, which makes it one of the most complete 3D construction solutions.

Construction printing services

This automated construction system is able to 3D print large buildings and tall infrastructures. Contour Crafting (a.k.a. CC Corp) aims to make disaster relief more efficient with their concrete additive manufacturing technology.

SQ4D – ARCS aims to provide quick, robust, eco-friendly, and affordable housing solutions for impoverished areas.

XtreeE develops specific 3D printing solutions for construction, engineering, and architectural design. This startup is based in France and has already completed a number of 3D construction projects.

Special mentions: interesting 3D construction projects


This unique building was completed by a consortium of companies in early 2019 and is based in Switzerland. The 3-story DFAB building offers 200 square meters of space.

Branch Technology C-FAB and WATG’s Curve Appeal design

The WATG architectural design firm won the Branch Technology Freeform Home Design Challenge in 2016. In 2019, their project is set to be printed in Tennessee by Branch Technology’s C-FAB freeform construction 3D printing method.

DUS Architects XL 3D printer (KamerMaker)

The XL 3D printer was created by DUS Architects to build a prototype canal-house (simply dubbed “3D Print Canal House”) in Amsterdam using recycled materials.

This US-based company, previously known as PassivDom (, 3D prints walls, floors, and roofs for their fully autonomous prefab houses.

Autodesk metal construction printer

Autodesk may or may not be working on a construction 3D printer that uses metal material. This 3D printer, which is more a pair of robotic arms than a printer, is able to make metal components for construction sites. We can’t wait to hear more about this!

CONCR3DE Armadillo stone 3D printer

CONCR3DE is a Dutch company that manufactures stone 3D printers. They are able to 3D print stone thanks to a special binder jetting process. Their two 3D printers, Armadillo Black and Armadillo White, aren’t able to print a house but can 3D print stone decorations or molds.

Discontinued projects and printers

Many startups have come and gone in the construction 3D printing industry.

D-Shape construction 3D printer

The D-Shape 3D printer is a multifunctional construction 3D printer that can 3D print very large objects, including houses and prototypes. D-Shape seems to be inactive since 2015.

Winsun house 3D printer

The Winsun 3D printer is a house 3D printer that was in the spotlight a few years ago. In 2015, however, Contour Crafting’s CEO accused Winsun of stealing their patented technology. Winsun’s website has since been taken down.

Cazza X1 3D printer

Cazza was founded in 2016 with its X1 construction 3D printer. However, it seems that one of the co-founders stole the company’s funding in 2018, and Cazza is now on standby.

HuaShang Tengda

HuaShang Tengda 3D printed a house capable of withstanding a base 8 earthquake on the Richter magnitude scale. Today, the company seems to be off the radar.

3D printed house time and cost

Construction 3D printing is faster and more affordable than traditional construction methods.

However, since construction 3D printing is still in its early years, it is difficult to provide definitive statements about how long it takes to 3D print a house and how much it costs to 3D print a house.

How long does it take to 3D print a house?

Various construction 3D printer manufacturers such as Apis Cor or ICON boast that they are able to 3D print a small house in 24 hours. As mentioned before though, print jobs generally only include laying down the house’s foundations and walls.

This does save whatever amount of time it usually takes for a standard team to build walls for a certain project. The rest of the timeframe for building a house remains equal.

3D printed house price

In general, it is estimated that a 3D printed house costs 30% to 55% less than a traditionally-built house.

For reference, Apis Cor’s small house cost less than $10,000 to produce, and ICON’s compact 3D printed home even cost less than $4,000.

Construction 3D printer price

A construction 3D printer can cost anywhere between around $180K to over $1M. Robotic arm systems tend to have higher price tags than gantry-type systems.

Other 3D printed infrastructures

Aside from housing or buildings, construction 3D printers are able to 3D print bridges and space-station infrastructures.

3D printed bridges

Construction 3D printers can also 3D print bridges. In 2015, the world’s first 3D printed steel bridge was 3D printed for testing in Amsterdam by MX3D. MX3D printed the final version of their stainless steel bridge in 2018 and installed it in Summer 2021.

In 2017, a 12-meter-long pedestrian bridge was 3D printed in Madrid, Spain. In the same year, the first 3D printed concrete bridge was built in the village of Gemert in the Netherlands.

More recently, in 2019, Shanghai became home to the world’s longest concrete 3D printed bridge. It is 26.3-meters long and 2.6-meters wide, and was 3D printed in only 18 days.

3D printed infrastructures in space

NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge has given life to a number of teams dedicated to bringing 3D printing to space. Apis Cor, namely, won the top prize for one of this project’s phases. The goal is to create sustainable and efficient 3D printed housing for deep space exploration.

Many other companies have been involved in space-building projects, including the European Space Agency and Elon Musk’s SpaceX. It is possible that we will see the first space house 3D printers in space sometime in the next couple of decades (!).

Apis Cor and SEArch+ team’s 3D printed space infrastructure (render) for the NASA 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge. Source: Apis Cor and SEArch+

FAQ: construction 3D printing

What is a 3D-printed house?

A 3D printed house is a house composed of 3D printed elements, such as 3D printed walls, floors, or roofs. It is also possible to use the term “3D-printed home”.

How much does it cost to 3D print a home?

It can cost as low as $4,000 to 3D print a home. Prices vary greatly according to the material being used and the size of the home to be 3D printed.

What are the best 3D printed house companies?

See our selection of the best 3D printed house companies here.

Where are there 3D-printed houses for sale?

There are 3D printed houses for sale in the US (Los Angeles, San Francisco), China, France, Russia, UAE, and many other countries.

Is concrete 3D printing just for houses?

No, concrete 3D printing is also for infrastructures such as bridges.

I want a house on a 3D printer! Step-by-step instructions on how to do it

Mass-produced 3D printing of buildings is becoming a reality in the booming construction industry. Today we will talk about the technology and types of industrial 3D printers.


The principle of construction using a 3D printer is the extrusion (extrusion) of concrete, layer by layer, according to a given three-dimensional computer model. With the help of a complex for preparing and supplying a building mixture, concrete is mixed with water and other additives and pumped into a hose. The hose is connected to the printer head. Under the pressure of the pump, concrete is fed to the head, the mixture exits the nozzle and is applied to the surface of the site or previous printed layers.

Types of construction 3D printers

To build a building, you need a ready-made 3D model, quick-setting concrete and a construction site that can be leveled with standard construction equipment. Most of the 3D printers print according to the same principle - by layering the concrete mixture extruded from the extruder nozzle. There are exceptions, such as D-Shape printers, which print by layering powder material and then bonding across the entire width of the machine.

Construction 3D printers are diverse - these are machines with a polar scheme of operation (rotating 3D printers), and delta printers, and based on robotic arms. Concrete mixes suitable for extrusion today make it possible to print elements of varying complexity and size - from small architectural forms, such as flower beds and benches, to entire buildings, bridges and even skyscrapers. Therefore, printers differ not only in device, but also in scale.

There are several types of construction printers:

XYZ-printers (portal)

The equipment is a frame along which the head moves along the XY axes. Three portals are usually used to hang the print head. The portals are moved by stepper motors providing the highest precision. They are designed to print buildings in parts - in the shop; and for printing interior walls, when installing the printer inside a building under construction. Small buildings that fit entirely under the arch of the printer are printed entirely in one go.


Delta printers, unlike gantry machines, do not rely on 3D guides and can print more complex shapes. Here the print head is suspended on thin arms that are attached to vertical rails.


Robotic printer-handles - a robot or a group of robots of the industrial manipulator type, equipped with extruders and controlled by a computer. A special case of a robot printer is a 3D printer with a polar pattern of operation, which is located inside a building under construction, usually in the center. Examples of such robots are a tracked vehicle from MIT and a robot from the Russian company Apis Cor.


Technical features make D-Shape a separate class of construction printers - it prints not with a solution, but with dry powder material, each layer of which is laid to the desired thickness and compacted, and then impregnated with a binder from the nozzles printer. The finished part is cleaned of excess raw materials.


The main print material is concrete.

Construction printing concrete must be suitable for extrusion through the print head. This is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. The difficulty is that the concrete must be laid in regular, even layers without spreading, and set quickly enough to retain its shape, but not too quickly - the superimposed layers must remain chemically active in order to form a single structure at the point of contact. Reducing the setting rate is also important for maintaining the performance of the equipment - the nozzle should not be clogged with hardening concrete.

Fine-grained mixtures are used for printing, which are different from traditional concrete. Each company develops its own formulation, which corresponds to the device of the printer and its nozzle, as well as the specifics of the target products. The most important concrete parameters for a 3D printer are strength, curing rate, and plasticity. The required strength of concrete is selected by regulating the composition of the mixture - the amount of cement and the quality of aggregates, as well as the addition of plasticizers. Plasticizing agents significantly increase the mobility of the mixture and reduce the water-cement ratio, which increases the strength of concrete.

Would you like to know more? Come join us for 3D modeling classes! We will teach not only how to create virtual models of houses, but also show how to print them. All information by phone +7 (900) 029-50-10.

Author: Egrashkin Nikita Alekseevich

Concrete 3D printing: still ahead

Back to Concrete Issues main page

Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3D printing, has been around since the 1980s. 3D printers have long been available for home use, so it's not surprising that industrial companies have begun to explore the possibility of using them in construction.

The use of 3D technology is widely and frequently discussed in the construction industry. Almost every week there is news of plans to 3D print structures ranging from bridges to houses that developers say can be built in one day. However, the initial enthusiasm in the media is quickly fading as there is less and less news of successful projects in this area. To shed some light on this topic, we asked a few experts for their opinions on the current state of 3D printing in construction.

One of the approaches to automation

There is a lot of hype in the construction industry around 3D printing technology, which, however, is still at an early stage of development. Concrete is a difficult material for 3D. A construction 3D printer works by applying concrete, layer by layer, through a nozzle, and in order to flow out of it, the concrete must be liquid. After printing, on the contrary, the material must quickly lose most of its fluidity in order to retain the printed form. However, at the same time, it should not harden too quickly to give the layers time to stick to each other. If layers are simply applied on top of others, without any connection between them, this will result in a weak structure, with no tensile strength. All this means that we cannot use ordinary concrete in 3D printing, and each structure needs a special type - always with different impurities.

We must also take into account the complexity of the frame of the building that is being built. 3D printing is best for simple designs. Wall structures in Northern Europe, for example, are quite complex, and using 3D printing in them is quite problematic. The structure of the sandwich panel itself is a challenge for 3D printing: it has three layers - internal concrete, insulation, and external concrete. In addition, there are usually various wiring components inside the wall structure. Printing a three-layer structure and assembling electrical components during the printing process is not an easy task. The entire wall structure needs to be redesigned for 3D printing.

The current speed of 3D printers is incomparable with modern precast concrete factories. In addition, the quality of products from factories is much better than that obtained using additive technologies. 3D printing makes it possible to produce complex shapes, but in the case of typical concrete structures such as wall panels, its efficiency is far from that achieved by modern precast concrete technology.

Despite the limitations, we must be open to the possibilities that 3D printing brings. It can be considered as one of the approaches to increase the level of construction automation. If you look objectively, the future of 3D printing in construction is not clear. It may be one of the tools to help develop automation in construction, but certainly not the only one.

We must keep in mind that one of the main advantages of concrete is that it can be cast into shapes, create images and structures of varying complexity. Various types of concrete surface treatment are also currently available. Concrete construction is based, as a rule, precisely on its flexibility. With the help of 3D printing, we will completely change this. 3D printing certainly gives us new opportunities, but at the same time we lose some of the benefits of using concrete.

Jouni Punkki

Professor of Practice (Concrete Technology)

Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland

Jouni Punkki
Professor of Practice (Concrete Technology)

Financial viability is a big issue in the use of 3D printing in construction

We should consider 3D printing in construction as a very interesting technology that has some potential in the future. From a safety point of view, there are rules governing construction of any kind, and of course there are requirements for adding reinforced bars as supports in 3D framing. Since this technology is new and regulatory practices are constantly changing, these rules can be difficult to comply with. But I don't think there is any reason to be concerned about the safety of 3D printed structures.

Concrete 3D printing faces the same challenges as other industries embracing this technology. Using molds to make components by casting will be much faster because with 3D printing you need extra time to make sure the previous layer can support the structure before adding the next one.

One advantage that 3D printed structures can provide over conventional building methods is that they are much easier to incorporate smart technologies such as sensors, making them easier to integrate into the smart city concept. From this point of view, it is much more difficult to modernize existing houses built using traditional building technologies.

Developing new technologies takes time. It's about testing, learning, and trying to figure out all the different variables. 3D printing of concrete structures is likely to become more commonplace. However, what role it will take in the construction industry, we cannot yet predict.

The big question, of course, is can we make it financially viable? Is this technology something that customers will pay for? Will the cost of acquiring special 3D technologies be competitive, or at least comparable to what is on the market? There are other ways to achieve similar results, and these options are cheaper and more readily available to the construction industry.

Jouni Partanen

Head of Department (Advanced Manufacturing)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland

CONCRETE EXPERIMENT 01 Design: Ashish Mohite, Michal Trpak Concrete Printing done by: Hyperion robotics Photographer: Umění ve městě 2019CONCRETE EXPERIMENTS Design: Ashish Mohite, Kunal Chadha Concrete Printing done by: Hyperion robotics Photographer: Ashish Mohite

Lots of claims, but not much evidence yet

There are several companies in the US and Europe that claim to be 3D printing concrete, but in the last two to three years they have only completed small projects such as private homes. One Russian company was erecting a three-story building in Dubai, and another company, already in Estonia, is now building a house using 3D printing. We help them make it a reality, but the project is still far from being completed.

Construction is a highly regulated industry, and one of the reasons why 3D printed concrete is no longer commercially available is the time it takes to get permits. In addition, the concrete used for 3D printing is more expensive than traditional concrete materials due to the admixtures needed to ensure the correct composition.

However, this technology continues to evolve. When a wall is 3D printed, it looks like a sandwich with two sublayers to make room for pipes and ventilation. In Zurich, it was possible to build a three-story house using various technologies. They invented a "smart stove" that had all the heating elements inside, however very expensive 3D printed molds were used for this. It was a pilot project to prove that the concept could be implemented.

Most companies involved in 3D printing in construction, of course, say that this technology is better than precast concrete, but in reality this has not yet been proven.

Ashish mohit

Doctoral program

Mechanical Engineering Faculty

Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland

Ashish mohita

3D printing: promising, but it has a long way to go

The current technology used in construction is pouring concrete. To make it financially viable, you must keep the structure simple and standardized. If you don't, the price will go up as you have to make and customize different molds. In addition, simple products are not only visually unattractive, but also require a large amount of concrete in the manufacture. With 3D printing, we can reduce the amount of concrete used by about 50% by focusing, for example, on where the wall bears the load. We can print lines to make a slab and only use materials where we really need them. However, this means that we must also develop new design methods to benefit from the technology. Unfortunately, this takes time.

The industry is focused on using currently available material. I think if you're going to change something, you'd better look at it from a social perspective and from a sustainability perspective. I saw an opportunity when working with digital concrete: everyone supports changing the composition of concrete because 3D printing is not perceived as a threat to the traditional construction industry.

I think 3D printing opens up a lot of possibilities for making smart materials. Why not tie the conductive materials directly into the concrete so that you no longer have to insert wires into concrete structures after they are made? With 3D printing, you can add inches, make material changes, make electrical connections in the right place, make concrete transparent where you want. It's about combining 3D printed concrete with smart technology to ultimately benefit us as a society.

One of the barriers is economic viability. A technology such as 3D printing will not be widely adopted unless there is a visible economic benefit at some point. Thus, manufacturers could consider expanding their business model so that construction is valued not only by the price of the house or structure being built, but also by the impact it has on our ecosystem and its sustainability.

However, there is a big difference between 3D printing a bridge and a house. We announced a 3D printed house project in Eindhoven two and a half years ago, and the first house has yet to be built. The complexity becomes apparent already when compared with the first printing bridge, which was opened within half a year after the start of the project.

We found this to be terribly difficult because building a house involves complex systems - HVAC, electricity, internet connection - that you have to consider. It took us a long time to figure out how to do this, and I think it will be many more years before we can print houses or buildings on a larger scale. Bridges are much easier to build using 3D printing, as they have fewer details.

Theo Sale

Dean of the Faculty of Built Environments

Professor of Structural / Concrete Design

Technical University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Theo Sale
Dean of the Faculty of Built Environments
Professor of Structural / Concrete Design
Technical University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Ideal for decorative elements, but not yet for structures

3D printing is a very interesting manufacturing system that we are following closely. It is already used in many industries such as steel and plastics, as well as in aeronautics, and especially in the production of aircraft parts. However, it is not widely used in the construction industry.

According to experts, there are still many barriers that need to be removed before 3D printing will leave its mark on construction, but I believe that it is the future of our business - it's just a matter of time. Now 3D printing is mainly used to create decorative items. Some cruise ships, for example, use 3D printed plastic and cellulose fibers as part of their interior design.

Although concrete is not yet widely used in 3D printing, it offers many advantages: fire resistance, strength and the ability to support heavy structural elements. This is what makes it an ideal material for 3D printing items such as statues or columns, especially since each of us needs something beyond the usual box-like prefabricated structures.

Decorative elements, of course, can also be molded from concrete, but this requires workers - craftsmen to equip the molds. One of the practical applications of 3D printing in construction is mold making. In complex precast concrete projects, mold tooling is always a challenge as it requires a lot of manpower and precision. If the molds were 3D printed, the process would be easier and less labor intensive.

Tested to 3D print entire frames using concrete for projects such as small single-family cottages.

Learn more